141216

December 16, 2014 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

Things have been tough lately. Field work as a pre-auditor feels quite annoying. Not because workload is overwhelming, but I can merely help and have no idea how I can be different or improved the next time involved in the job like this. 

I think the so-called toughest days of every year have already come. It is a déjà vu, similar to the same period of last year. And the most annoying feeling is that I cannot see any difference or improvement of myself. 

An ulcer appears beneath my tongue, haven’t got this for long time, so bad.



刷六级

April 21, 2013 | Filed Under English | 1 Comment 

上传两个文件,供师妹考前特训。

五套听力

十天训练



关于TOEIC和BEC Higher的一些矛盾的想法

April 21, 2013 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

一些找工作的小朋友会问一个让我不知怎么回答的问题,

托业和商务英语高级,报哪个考试好点?

大三那会没怎么想过,两个证我都考。如今毕业在即,发现自己无法给出一个确切的答案。思来想去,觉得把个中矛盾的过程梳理一番,让问问题的小朋友寻找适合自己的答案,何尝不是一件好事。

之所以不好选,多少因为TOEIC和BEC-H在有些地方很像。

首先它俩都是学有余力的同学在继大学六级之后,可能选择的保持英语水平的下一站。这里的同学指的是不出国的小朋友,因为准备留学的小朋友早就已经投身于雅思托福的排位战中,不屑TOEIC或BEC这般简单的考试。其次,托业和商英高级的费用大概都在六百元左右。这给我们造成了一种彼此替代的幻觉,毕竟钱是学生时代一个比较重要的生活因素。

当然,TOEIC和BEC-H之间,更多的是不同,一些真正让我矛盾的地方。

我们先粗略看个表,为了更好的对比,我把大学六级也加了进来。首先说一句正确的废话,大学六级务必过,有能力的小朋友请将分数往高处刷。

TOEIC BEC-H CET6
内容 阅读、听力 阅读、听力、写作、口语 阅读、听力、写作
费用 ¥598 ¥598 ¥36
分数 最高990,无通过之说 最高等级A,C可获高级证书 最高710,425为默认的及格线
难度 一般(800+)
比较难(900+)
难(C,60-75)
极难(A,80-100)
比较难(550+)
难(600+)
认证 高,尤其国内
实用 高,免笔试 高,网申选项
锻炼 具体视分数

大多数人考TOEIC初衷倒不是为了将分数写在简历上,而是希望日后可以免笔试。听说挺多外企将TOEIC作为求职者的一项考核,如果成绩达到一定程度,可以免去面试前的笔试。有些中资企业也把自身招聘的笔试部分,设计成TOEIC的形式。在我印象中的几场银行招聘中,TOEIC的阅读也跟着做了几次。于是,TOEIC变得越来越受欢迎。此外,TOEIC的题型十分符合我们的长久以来学习英语的习惯,听力阅读,没写没说,动手不动口,活到九十九。看上去TOEIC比六级还好准备,容易得高分,除了费用高一点之外,确实没什么坏处。

其实这才是TOEIC最坏的地方——容易让人满足。在最后一项“锻炼”那里,我给了TOEIC低。TOEIC的考试证明不了一个人的英语能力,这句话的谦虚版说法是,考了满分的TOEIC,so what。就说我自己,考了900+,口语还是那么不好,作文七天憋出六个单词。两个人,一个做阅读很厉害,一个说口语很厉害,你觉得哪一个的英语让人感觉更厉害。我的答案是后者。语言这种东西,听说总是先于读写,一口好的口语比一个华丽的从句更能让人产生好感。谈及求职,一旦进入面试阶段,开始出现表达口语的环节,TOEIC予我们的帮助,再也不像笔试那会那么明显。

一句话,TOEIC要去考,考个九百加。怎么九百加,摸我

说完TOEIC,马上讲BEC-H。

剑桥商务英语的知名度和认证程度已经每况愈下,名字听上去像个专业,没有一点外来衍生品的味道。而且它夹在雅思和托业之间,出国的考前者,求职的考托业,不再像我进大学那会那般风光了。即便如此,商务英语高级仍是个很锻炼人的考试。为何只说高级,因为作为商务英语里边最牛逼的证书,BEC-H已经这么四不像了,商英中级BEC-Vantage可想而知。我强烈反对去参加中级的考试,即便它便宜二百块,该证比鸡肋还鸡肋。零花钱多的小朋友直接报高级,不要先过中级再过高级的可爱想法

说回正题,BEC-H考察范围大,程度深,不愧为历史悠久的一款考试。六种阅读题,两篇作文,三种听力以及三种口语测试。单看种类,完爆TOEIC,甚至有时我觉得可以和雅思媲美。但毕竟雅思没考过,不能乱说。阅读考配对,填句子,阅读,完型,填词,改错。52道小题加涂卡,一个小时,时间相当紧凑。作文有图表小作文和商业报告之类的大作文,这是中国考生最不喜欢准备的一个项目。听力则考填词,配对和访谈。即便我有幸参加专八的考试,感受过mini-lecture的无奈,我仍觉得BEC-H的听力是自己遇到过最难的考试。最后的口语相对比较水,考官是考场的中国老师而非鬼佬,这可能跟报名费有关系。

BEC-H需要的备考时间远远大于TOEIC。BEC-H的模拟题跟真题的差距太大,而真题就只有四套,准备时多少要去看教材。可教材有多种出版社,见效不明显,难以让人满足。不看书错十个,看了书错十一个。加之还要把时间放在作文口语,无法一门心思死做题,备考的难度要比TOEIC大得多。更重要的是,BEC-H认证度太低,让人感觉是一项吃力不讨好的活儿。折腾好久,考不过,花钱买不开心。

如果还是一句话,对于BEC-H,我建议不考。

但这是一句不负责任的话,为何不负责任,请允许我伪伪道来。

我考了两次BEC-H,在期间考了两次CET6,一次TOEIC。

58分那次商英准备了几个月的时间,中间加了个暑假,正式卯足劲是在九月广交会结束后。每天做题,练听力,把24套中高级的题仔仔细细做,晚上去女生2栋找武藏练口语,直到十一月十九号考。

十二月,趁热打铁,考六级,感觉听力不难,有时间检查完形填空。

回家过年,一月份知道BEC-H不过,而且把武藏也拉下水。

年后回学校,六级六百分。准备TOEIC,950。到中大拿BEC的成绩单,58分,差两分拿证。

心里一直放不下。我是个不能跟自己内心过不去的人,想到什么就去做,不然会不踏实。于是,报了第二次BEC-H,¥598,白花花是我娘亲的银子。

第二次备考远没有第一次充分了,而且没有武藏。白天实习,晚上去图书馆做去年打过一遍的题。还好自己记性不好,旧题都忘了。

五月考,现场找的口语partner。感觉没有第一次好,只是心里淡定,不在意。

八月拿到成绩单,72分,差3分,拿到B的证书。手贱查了准考证前十位和后十位,一个C,一个Z(缺考),剩下的都是B2。

再后来,报了人生最后一次六级,只是单纯想证明自己六百加不是运气。有时间坐在座位上等收卷了,即便结果证明失败,心安理得。

说了这么多,我只想说,58分那次BEC-H对我的帮助是最大的。那几个月逼着自己从听说读写学习英语,结果虽达不到预期,可随手900+和600+不正是它打下的基础么。

矛盾其实在此,特别对于找工作的小朋友。

不建议考BEC-H却说着它的好处,到底是建议还是不建议。

不建议,因为我不希望你花时间和金钱最后不开心,收不到直接的成效,比如免笔试。

可不反对,因为我觉得整个备考的过程能帮助到你的,可比单单免笔试要多得多。

好好利用大学的时间,好好学习英语。如果你觉得我这个建议可以,六百块买一段逼迫自己学习的日子,不算贵。那请原谅我再多嘴一句,雅思托福的认证度更高,锻炼程度又比之BEC-H绝对有过之而无不及,而且网申总有它两的身影。何不加多900块,鱼和熊掌,两者得兼。

如果你觉得这样也可以,足以证明你学习英语的决心之大,常人难以企及。如此大的决心,又何须用考试来逼迫自己学习,你大可以省下这些钱,每天制定好学习的计划,听说读写样样不落,把学习英语当成分内的事,而非考试任务。考六级只是学校要求,什么托业免笔试,有实力到时去笔试不就得了,还怕没九百九么。

嗯,我承认我在矛盾地绕圈圈,从来没这般坦白过。但我希望你知道我在绕,故意地绕,同时希望你带着你的答案绕出来。



TOEIC 心得 in Topsage

April 18, 2012 | Filed Under English | 53 Comments 

201212更新百度盘下载地址:摸我

写在最前头的只能是这一句:感谢大家网

备考的资料和经验都是在大家网上找的,再次谢谢。本人是三月份考的,九出头,跟大家网上那些满分牛人比起来,自是望尘莫及被甩几条街。今晚被问起TOEIC的一些经验,于是我想着把它写下来,最近网申频频失败,是时候攒攒人品。三月份的考试过了快一个月才来写心得,真是抱歉,最近过得有些混乱。废话不说,进入正题吧。

所用资料:superb2;全真题库part1-4,part5-6,part7;新东方的听力,还有零零散散一些听力的题,皆来自于大家网的pdf。

平日养成的看纸质书的习惯,所以我用acrobat剪下试题部分,打印的时候,设置双面,一页两版,纵向,左装订。临考试的几天也有模拟在电脑看pdf做题,其实差别不大。听力一题一题过的,机试于我反而更好,因为没有反悔的可能,对于不确定的东西我有改答案的强迫症。之于阅读,看纸的可能会快点,可是得花时间涂卡,电脑会相对疲劳点。现在都机考了,偶尔用用屏幕找找感觉就可以了。去官网看看那个flash流程,考试前一晚了解一下,没什么问题的。

__________

下面就针对TOEIC七大类的题谈谈我个人的体会。

Part 1:10个图,每图4句。多加练习即可,记得把错了再听上好几遍,发觉错在哪里,特别是有些句子明明每个单词都听出来了,却选错了,更要小心。只要练到每个选项都听清楚,而且知道其他三个明显错在哪里就可以了。

Part 2:30个问,每问3个答,先问后答。刚接触的时候错挺多的,个人觉得是注意力不集中,而且对问句生疏所造成的。在念道题序号的时候,高度集中精神,要特别注意开头的单词,where,when,how,what等等。也要小心陈述句或祈使句,多积累这方面的经验。听清楚了之后,我们的目标应该定在,比如正确答案是A,要做到在A念完便选下,而且有信心BC都是错了,进而发现BC的确是错的。

Part 3 与 Part 4:Dialogue 30个,Monologue 30个,两个拦路虎。首先提前看题的时间很少,只有“Question * to Question * are referred to the following conversation……”这短短的几秒。平时练的时候有就要有这种意识,这句话还没开始绝不先看题,一旦开始,马上扫一下三个问题,特别注意疑问词,人名,专有名词。快速看题自是要练出来的,当然一旦还没看完便开始了,那也别急,可以边看别听的嘛。两个方面都练习,遇到简单的录音就会发现,其实就算先看题,也是可以的。因为简单,边看边选没什么障碍。好比如果念一段中文,播完录音再显示题目,估计也可以全对吧。话说回来,面对难的的对话,有先看题,大致了解,还是很有帮助的。

所以我们要两个方面一起抓, 练习快速看题,防复杂的录音,练习听力,把复杂的录音变成简单的。

Part 5: 我觉得这是最难的一部分,考语法基础,考词汇辨析。虽说有时候很简单,比如单复数,虚拟,分词,可往往这些,一不小心就错了。而词汇有时候,让人黑线的是,四个词都差不多,或是四个词都不认识。我从练习到真正考试,阅读分数都不是很高,大概都是这部分很弱的原因。备考个TOEIC不可能准备个一年半载,大家都是临考一个多月就上了,语法不扎实的,像我,若真的复习语法不仅像大海捞针,而且没有方向,容易厌烦。

我的个人的做法是,做题,把自己错过的的记下来,没事看,语法、词汇,只要是错了,也别归类了,像什么in +大地点,at+小地点;“you are entitled to the following benefits.”;remake 重拍;arguable可论证的,argumentative好争论的。我自己一共积累了89条,题做多了,这部分的题目大部分也就百分百确定了,至于至于到了真正考试,有个别不确定的,排除法吧,再不行就当施舍给ETS吧,错一道没多少分的,别影响自己的心态,只要保证别因粗心眼花送分就可以了,总之,相信自己的选择。

Part 6:4篇短文,每篇3个空,这部分是5和7的过渡。认真做,没什么方法,可以留意一下每篇文章的文体。最多也就需要我们看一下前后文,挺多可以独立出来做的,但是切记不要有独立出来做,只看空格前后做这样的贼胆。我们都是屌丝,没资本冒着险赶时间扮酷给自己看。小心驶得万年船,这一部分是心理上的缓冲,后边有很多阅读等着我们的。

Part 7:48道阅读理解,后20道是4篇“两篇关联”的不同文体的文章。阅读我们从初中做到现在了,也没什么好说的。只是强调一下,每一题的答案都是在原文可以找到的,世间万物皆事出有因。找不到,静下心来,别急,再读一遍题,肯定会有的。对应好一些人名和地点名,事件名,会好找一些。最后一部分了,再累也要集中精神,告诉自己,TOEIC的阅读很白痴的,很好找答案的。

以上只是个人一些经验,仅供参考与共勉,欢迎纠正。

__________

现在,说一些自己在准备过程中时常看到的一些问题:

“模拟题那套题最真?真正考试是不是会比较简单?”

如果我们准备的时间很充足,那就不要有这种心态。无论真题还是假题,难或易,我们的目标是听出来,做出来。无论是棒子出的,还是旧西方的,只要题型符合,就可以拿来练。英语好才是本质的。如果明天就要考了,今晚开始做第一套题,错了几十个,那我们要百分百提醒自己,机考的难度很低的,今晚不算,都不是一个档次的。说句实在的,机考的难度会稍微比“非棒子”的题小,不过我更愿意将其归为是我们不断练习的结果

“要买书还是要打印亦是在电脑上做?”

大家网上有些高富帅是一分钱都没花,用笔记本看pdf,除报名费不花一分钱一不小心就990满槽。这个我觉得,因人而异,关键找到适合自己,能让自己每天坚持下去的方式就可以了。作为一名屌丝,我是打印版为主,为了省钱,一面四个,电子版则为辅,前者练习提高,后者适应真机环境。一句话,要坚持练习,不生疏才至关重要。

“什么书好?”

TOEIC的书有太多,光大家网上我下载到的,pdf加MP3就有3.5G。要有自己的选择,990的家友推荐的书目大家可以去看一下,然后选择适合自己的,制定好计划。Superb和superb2的要认真对待,真题库也不错,最后自然还有官方指南卷了。计算一下距离考试还有多少时间,每天可以花多少时间,然后把最好的书目拆成任务填满自己每天的时间表,考TOEIC最最悲哀的事是什么,手头好多极品资料,可是直到考试前也没有认真看完一本。

好了,废话这么多。拖了这么久的心得终于写的七七八八了,再次感谢大家网。

我把在大家网的资料上传到了115,共四个包,都可以独立解压。

所有文件皆来自大家网,转载请注明大家网。

文件内容对应如下:

四个115地址

http://115.com/file/be96w4b3#      托业试题-大家网-gra1.zip
http://115.com/file/be96wpgv#      托业听力-大家网-gra1.zip
http://115.com/file/be96s263#      托业阅读-大家网-gra1.zip
http://115.com/file/dpbd58h1#      托业其他-大家网-gra1.zip

如果大家有下载上的问题,留个评论,我会通过邮件回复,一定尽力解决。而且如果我们恰巧同在GZ-HEMC的某一高校,用校园网传,事半功倍。

最后的最后,祝所有考TOEIC的屌丝,高富帅,白富美,只要坚持练习,都会有个好成绩,九百加,外企免笔试。

祝愿大家网越办越好!

__________

后记—4月23日

前几天,一位远在法国的朋友Neil给我发邮件,说国外下载不了115的东西。我们试图用QQ传,毕竟距离太远,只有30K/s左右的速度。于是我让他试了一下Rayfile,我唯一知道的一个国外网盘,Raysource运行正常,可停可续。

花了两天时间,终于把3.5G的压缩包上传上去了,名字是TOPSAGE TOEIC,而且只有一个,不用分压。

压缩包里的资料都来自于大家网,详见上图,一次性下载比较方便,而且借助于网盘,速度会快很多。

1)关于115,下载115的东西,要安装它的优蛋,点优蛋下载。如果选旁边的极速下载,借助于thunder或其他工具,是无法续传的,也就是说如果你一个不小心网络不好掉了线,哪怕下载到99%,只要暂停过,唯有0%重新开始。网络好的,一秒几百K上M的,一口气搞定就不用看我这段废话了。

当然,要是有115的号,把它收藏到自己的网盘也是不错的选择。

2)关于Rayfile,文件太大,安装Raysource后方可下载。RF这个网盘很赞,我很喜欢,一是稳定,二来速度也快,三来国内外的朋友都可以下载。

国外的朋友如果115不行,记得用Rayfile,我代表大家网专门为你们上传的,呵呵。真心希望你们下载顺顺利利,好好复习。

RF下载地址:

http://www.rayfile.com/zh-cn/files/ee294e0c-8cd5-11e1-a91b-0015c55db73d/

最近很流行屌丝这个词,很喜欢,它予人一种莫名的亲切与归属感。

不过在大家网发帖子,实在得注意些修辞与表达,所以我已改了帖子的名字。

末了,请允许我再废话几句关于考试的体会。

考英语只是为了一种能力的证明,但是不是真的有能力并不是一个TOEIC说了算,最多只能说在某一程度上吧。我考听力的时候,在测试耳机,有一边是坏的,监考的那人说可以听就好了,我当时很不爽,但只能认命因为考试开始了。可更不爽的是在后头,周围的人也都是单边耳机,他们不干了,吵着要换,摘掉耳机说不做了,要投诉。我脑海里闪过一丝念头要不要跟他们一起?我很快打消了,心想你们吵吧,我一边听录音一边听你们吵,也要照样做。说实在的,前10个图,做得很虚,都只听了一两个选项,只凭听到的知道那个肯定错,那个可能对,百万富翁那样做。

等他们静下来,开始念Part2的题了,那时候心里很平静了,即便只是单边耳机,但没有了杂音,一直到听力结束,感谢那一边耳机陪我撑到最后。

阅读也按照平时一样,一步一步做下来,剩10分钟吧part5标记的题目再确认一下,然后取消掉标记,不改了,交卷。

走出教室前,我回头望了一下刚才那几个吵闹,现在还在考的战友,心里跟自己开了个玩笑,我那些被他们吵掉的分啊,记得要跑到他们的成绩上,别让他们白吵。

两个星期成绩出来之后,还算凑合,但也给自己提了个醒。听力在预料之中,除那被吵掉不确定的,剩余都是听进耳朵里的,选得有把握。然而阅读错的就比较多了,而且是自己没有发现的,很明显,英语还需要好好努力学。

不要为了考试而考试,考试是目的为了提高和检验自己,考完了,就算分数好,也别把它落下,别消磨掉我们已拥有的提高,要使其成为我们下一次提高的铺垫与台阶。

好了,就到此为止吧,打了这么多字,太长了,伤了大家的眼睛和脖子了,莫怪。

 

Best wishes to Topsage!

Enjoy our summer!

 



第26课

January 6, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-7 Using the Intonation & Stress for Communication

整理 by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/aq7dy3j1

 

这是最后一课。Dr. David再次强调两点,跟读或自己练习时,you must feel you are exaggerating and imaging people listening to your talking.

①Repeat after Dr. David

I haven’t been to a baseball game in an eternity.

I’d consider it an honor if you’d come to the game with me.

I hesitated just before making the decision.

The incriminating evidence was overwhelming.

Is it appropriate to wear jeans to the restaurant?

②Additional drills

I’d like to welcome all of you to this meeting.

I’ll begin by introducing myself to you.

My name is David Alan stern, and I’ve been president of this company for the last ten years.

I’ve seen a lot of changes in that time.

Yes, we’ve certainly made a great deal of progress.

But, there is still a lot more to do if we’re going to continue to grow.

Starting next week, we will begin a brand new project.

Although our goals are new, we still need the same dedication and the same hard work you have already shown us.

I hope that the next ten years of progress make the last ten seem small in comparison.

 

__________

Dr. David: Finally, let’s end with the same passage we used in course 1. Follow the instructions on the tape as you try to integrate everything you’ve learned into this final passage. The tape will take you through the passage twice–first, one sentence at a time, second, as a complete speech.

GrahamPractice, practice and practice.

__________

Final drill passage

“I’d like to welcome all of you to this meeting. I’ll begin by introducing myself to you. My name is David Alan stern, and I’ve been president of this company for the last ten years. I’ve seen a lot of changes in that time. Yes, we’ve certainly made a great deal of progress. But, there is still a lot more to do if we’re going to continue to grow. Starting next week, we will begin a brand new project. Although our goals are new, we still need the same dedication and the same hard work you have already shown us. I hope that the next ten years of progress make the last ten seem small in comparison.”

 



第25课

January 5, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-6 Practicing Syllable Stress

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/dnhf017o

 

Dr. David: Although there are no absolute rules in English telling you which syllable to stress, there are some groups of words which have similar stress patterns.

 

1. Nouns

_____

 

A. Regular nouns

①Repeat after Dr. David

table, handle, action, bachelor, dragon, ceiling, carpet

The action began in the second scene.

There wasn’t enough action in the scene.

There wasn’t enough action.

②Additional drills

warehouse, storage, calendar, ocean, animal, picture, fixture

conscience, basket, paper, shoulder, echo, concept, section

 

B. Verb-based nouns

①Repeat after Dr. David

recorder, announcement, computer, graduation

If the verbs inside the nouns has the stress on each first syllable, verb-based noun will still have first syllable stressed.

如果动词本身重读第一个音节,其衍生而来的名词也可能重读第一个音节。

broadcasting, calculate

The announcement came early in the morning.

He made two announcements yesterday.

The headmaster made the announcement.

②Additional drills

election, creation, establishment, variation, construction

 

C. The “ate” verbs/”-ation” nouns

Dr. David: In most cases the stress point for the verbs is two syllables before the last. The stress point for the nouns is usually on the second to the last syllable. However, if one of these nouns has four or more syllables, you will usually have the option of stressing the fourth syllable from the end.

由动词衍生而来的多音节名词形式一般都有两种重读方式,注意跟读录音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

investigate/investigation

confiscate/confiscation

generate/generation

accelerate/acceleration

terminate/termination

speculate/speculation

There are a few cases where the verb form has only two syllables and the noun form has only three. In those cases the words will stress their first and Second syllables respectively.

如果动词双音节,名词三音节,则分别重读其动词的第一,名词的第二音节。

Frustrate/frustration fixate/fixation

②Additional drills

Accelerate/acceleration graduate/graduation

Communicate/communication separate/separation

Moderate/moderation contemplate/contemplation

 

D. The “ate” verb switch

Something else very interesting can happen to verbs that end in the letters “ate.” by softening the hard-a vowel and pronouncing it as a soft-i, the word changes from a verb into a noun or an adjective.

有趣的是,有些以ate结尾的动词,发[eit]是动词,发[it]则可转化成它的名词或形容词。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Moderate, approximate, separate, graduate

②Additional drills

Elaborate, degenerate, associate, moderate

 

E. The “-avle” and “-avility” pairs

There are pairs of adjectives and nouns in which the adjective ends in the sound of the “l” and the noun ends in the letters “ility.” In these pairs the adjective often stresses the first syllable while the noun stresses the second.

形容词以l结尾,名词以结尾的单词,前者重读第一个音节,后者第二个。

①Repeat after Dr. David

able/ability, stable/stability, virile/virility, sterile/sterility

When the work s gets a little longer, the nouns have optional syllable stress.

多音节的名词,如后缀为ibility,一般有两种重读方式。

credible/credibility

affable/affability

knowledgeable/knowledge ability

②Additional drills

pliable/pliability workable/workability

operable/operability salvageable/salvage ability

capable/capability sufferable/suffer ability

 

2. Final R-shaded vowels

_____

 

A. When a verb adds the simple [ə] sound to form a verb-based noun, the new noun keeps the stressed syllable from the original verb. This also happens on some words which actually add the letters “or” to represent the unstressed [ə].

动词加er或or变成名词,只要发[ə]音,依旧重读第一个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

runner, player, helper, sailor, Taylor, actor, savior

Incinerator, educator, commander

②Additional drills

Builder, reactor, dancer, dresser, teacher, soldier, carrier

A*. The same stress rule applies when “er” or “est” are added to the end of an adjective.

加er或est改为比较级或最高级,还是重读第一个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

big/bigger/biggest

heavy/heavier/heaviest

Fast/faster/fastest

②Additional drills

rich/richer/richest

green/greener/greenest

fresh/fresher/freshest

 

B. Final [a:] and [ɔ:] syllables

最后的音节包含这两个元音的单词,重读第二个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

ignore, explore, rapport, support, absorb

apart, discard, alarm, enlarge

②Additional drills

Implore, afford, record, discharge, disarm, embark

Of course, there are times when some of these “ar” or “or” verbs with final-syllable stress can become nouns by shifting stress back to the first syllable.

有时候,这两种单词,重读第一个音节表示其名词,第二则是动词。

consort/consort, resort/retort, import/import,

retard/retard, discard/discard

 

C. R-shaded diphthong endings

复合元音结尾的重读。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I like you to be sincere about it.

My career is at stage.

I insure you it will happen.

I can’t endure it any more.

Prepare yourself for work.

Repair easier on the machine.

desire, require, conspire, devour, observe, disturb

I’m not prepared yet.

We’re required a down payment.

I’m disturbed by his action.

②Additional drills

appear, steer, impair, blare, affair, allure, secure, conspire, admire, shower

 

3. Assorted other categories of “olve”, ect”, and “ify”.

Olve和ect重读最后一个音节,ify重读第二个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

dissolve, resolve, involve

expect, respect, inspect, collect

I expect it.

I respect that man.

modify, amplify, codify, solidify, exemplify

②Additional drills

connect, infect, select

justify, horrify, sanctify



第24课

January 4, 2012 | Filed Under English | 1 Comment 

3-5 Intonation & Syllable Stress

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clqrtoch

 

Dr. David: In course 1 you learned to do the basic jump up/step down intonation pattern. Now let’s explore a little refinement of that pattern. Instead of just jumping on an early, important word, let’s jump on the stressed syllable of that word.

在第一章我们学习了如何提高音调,如今把这种技巧运用于需要重读的音节。本节将依次讲动词,形容词,名词的重读。

I’m really glad to see you.

重读[riə]这个音节。

I’m particularly glad to see you.

重读[ti]这个音节。

 

1. Stressed syllables of verbs

_____

 

A. First syllable stressed

重读第一个音节的单音节或多音节动词

Begin intonation by jumping on that syllable and then immediately (within the same word) begin the downward steps.

所谓重读,即提高对应音节的音调,然后接下来没有重读的音节快速把音调降下来。跟读录音,细细体会。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I’ll do it tomorrow morning.

I’ll try it tomorrow morning.

I’ll find it tomorrow morning.

I’ll grab it tomorrow morning.

I’ll publish it tomorrow morning.

I’ll cancel it tomorrow morning.

I’ll translate it tomorrow morning.

I’ll concentrate on that tomorrow morning.

I’ll dedicate it tomorrow morning.

I’ll separate them tomorrow morning.

I’ll analyze it tomorrow morning.

②Additional drills

(依照句式,替换练习,下同。)

rescue, rotate, finish, locate, borrow, listen to

 

B. Second syllable stressed

重读第二个音节的单音节或多音节动词

①Repeat after Dr. David

I’ll investigate it tomorrow morning.

I’ll establish it tomorrow morning.

除此之外,作者建议tomorrow在第二个音节重读,morning则在第一个音节重读。

I’ll determine that tomorrow morning.

I’ll remember it tomorrow morning.

I’ll continue it tomorrow morning.

I’ll return it tomorrow morning.

I’ll insure it tomorrow morning.

I’ll bow it tomorrow morning.

I’ll compete for that tomorrow morning.

I’ll destroy it tomorrow morning.

If you are not sure, jumping on the first syllable. You are much better of jumping on the wrong syllable than not jumping at all.

若不确定那里重读,作者说重读第一个音节,错了总比没有好,这叫我情何以堪。

②Additional drills

accomplish, examine, embellish, demolish, encourage

 

C. Different stress points

差异重读

Begin by jumping on either the primary or secondary stress point.

多音节的动词有时重读第一个或第二个音节都是可以的,下面每个句子作者都将读两次,体会之间的差别。

①Repeat after Dr. David

We’re having an investigation.

I’ll manufacture it tomorrow.

I’ll superimpose it tomorrow.

I’ll redevelop it tomorrow.

②Additional drills

要求:Do each one twice, jumping pitch on the two different stressed syllables.

Reassemble, reconsider, overindulge, reintroduce

 

2. Stressed syllables of adjectives

_____

 

A. First syllable stressed

重读第一个音节的形容词

①Repeat after Dr. David

A great thing happened today.

A swell thing happened today.

Some nice thing happened today.

Some fine thing happened today.

A charming thing happened today.

A silly thing happened today.

An interesting thing happened today.

A valuable thing happened today.

A wonderful thing happened today.

②Additional drills

sweet, tame, foul, good, bad

Sorry, horrible, special, stimulating, challenging

B. Second syllable stressed

重读第二个音节的形容词

An annoying thing happened today.

An expensive thing happened today.

An embarrassing thing happened today.

An inspiring thing happened today.

An remarkable thing happened today.

 

C. Final syllable stressed

重读末尾音节的形容词

A secure thing happened today.

A distinct thing happened today.

An absurd thing happened today.

(B和C都没有相应的录音,只能自己练。)

 

D. Optional syllables for intonation jumps

类似于多音节动词可以有不同重读的情况,形容词也是,请认真跟读录音,体会前后两次的不同。

①Repeat after Dr. David

An inconsiderate person came in today.

A superstitious people were in there.

An inappropriate thing happened today.

②Additional drills

satisfactory, dis/interested, overindulgent, inexperienced

 

3. The stressed syllables of nouns

Dr. David: The vast majority of nouns have first syllable stress. Almost all of the ones which do not stress the first syllable are nouns whose root words are other parts of speech (usually verbs).

大部分的名词都是重读第一个音节。一般说来,那些重读不在第一个音节的名词,是由其动词形式衍生而来的。

_____

 

A. One syllable or first syllable stress

单音节或第一个音节重读

①Repeat after Dr. David

My desk was the topic of discussion.

The ceiling was the topic of discussion.

The carpet was the topic of discussion.

Our telephone was the topic of discussion.

The highway system was the topic of conversation.

Pay attention to Compound Nouns. Jump the stressed syllable of the first word and continue stepping down through the second word of the compound noun.

重读冠词后的第一个音节。

The area rug was spread across the floor.

The adding machine was the topic of discussion.

The supply cabinet was over by the wall.

The station wagon can be a fine car.

②Additional drills

Table, workshop, calendar, strawberries, government, picture

Real estate, heart specialist, toy soldiers, speech teacher, speech writer, grave digger, appointment secretary

 

B. Second syllable stress

①Repeat after Dr. David

The director came into the room.

The computer broke down.

The assembly was called to order.

Our investment was really paid off.

②Additional drills

producer, executive, assistant, interpreter, ambassador

 

4. Final word stress

Occasionally a speaker wants to stress the last word in a phrase or sentence.

我们有时会重读最后一个单词,来表示我们想要强调的地方。

①Repeat after Dr. David

It was really interesting.

It’s very important.

He forgot to do the cleaning.

If that final word has only one syllable or if the stress falls on the last syllable, then you must jump up and slide down on the same stressed syllable.

我们说重读是提高一个音节的音调然后在下一个音节把它降下来。如果这个单词为单音节或重读音节已是最后一个,我们则应该在同一个音节做两件事。听听作者的错误示范,便会觉得若只升不降是很别扭的。

Don’t tell me he forgot.

I thought I told you to stop.

There was no way i can help.

I don’t want to have a debate.

He didn’t hear what i said.

We’re trying to conquer a disease.

②Additional drills

expect, belong, find, agree, receive, annoyed, explore, try

 



第23课

January 3, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-4 Other Colloquial Sloppiness

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clqrtn1v

 

1. The Articles 冠词的四种发音规则

_____

 

A. Before a consonant, the word “the” is usually pronounced as the voiced “the” sound followed immediately by the beginning of the next word. There will be almost no vowel sound in the word “the”.

在辅音前,the中的[ə]不发音,即由辅音[ð]连下一个单词。

①Repeat after Dr. David

the tree, the house, the camel, the dog, the garage,

the hill, the jungle, the lamp

②Additional drills

the wall, the picture, the screen, the table, the ball, the street,

the gold, the Yellow chair, the dark sky, the cover

 

B. Before a vowel, the word “the” is pronounced with the [i:] vowel gliding into the beginning of the next word.

在元音前,冠词the读为[ði:]

①Repeat after Dr. David

the apple, the other, the old house, the English countryside,

the awful sauce, the illness, the other one

②Additional drills

The old man, the orange, the oboe, the island, the island, the owl, the ordinary people, the actual fact, the all-important dollar

 

C. Before a consonant, the word “a” is pronounced as the soft vowel [ə].

①Repeat after Dr. David

a book, a desk, a house, a picture, a fence, a garage

②Additional drills

a wall, a picture, a screen, a table, a ball, a street, a gold, a yellow chair, a dark sky, a cover

 

D. Before a vowel, the word “a” changes to the word “an” with the “n” gliding directly into the vowel that begins the next word.

[n]和接下来的元音连读。

①Repeat after Dr. David

an apple, an old mansion(n.宅邸), an English manor(n.庄园)

an awful thing, an ordinary day

②Additional drills

an old man, an orange, an oboe, an island, an owl, an ordinary person, an actual fact, an important idea

 

2. Other Short Words

_____

 

A. The word “to” is usually pronounced as a soft “t” with almost no vowel sound.

这种情况类似于3-4-1-A的the+辅音开头单词

①Repeat after Dr. David

to work, to the store, to the movies, to the office, to my mother’s house

②Additional drills

I have to be there soon.

He came to see his sister.

I have to go to the store this evening.

A*. But when the word “to” comes immediately after a word that ends in a vowel sound, it Americanizes into a soft “d”.

to的前面是以元音为尾音的单词,把[t]轻轻发成[d]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I must go to work.

Please go to the store.

Can we go to the movies?

I don’t want to go to the office.

A.** “Want To” be generated in to “Wanna”.

在口语中wanna的确更常见,有好多歌词也是用它。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Do you want to work?

Do you want to have some fun?

Do you want to go to the store?(这句话结合了A和A**中的要点,请注意体会。)

A.*** For “To You, To Him, To Her”, Americans will mess up one or the other.

类似于A,省略了元音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I can’t give it to you.

I talked to him yesterday.

I have to bring it to her house.

②Additional drills

I already gave it to him.

I walked over to her.

So to speak, away to school, play to win, agree to speak

 

B. “for” and “from” are often pronounced [fə:] and [frm], unless they are at the end of a phrase.

若for,form不在句子的末尾,而是在句子的中间,for中[ɔ:]要发成[ə:],而from则去掉元音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

What’s that for?

I didn’t know what it’s for.

It’s for you.

It’s for him’

It’s for the church picnic.

It’s for school.

It’s something I need for my job.

②Additional drills

I’ll need it for three days.

It’s for you from all of us.

The letter from the president thanked him for doing good work.

Come down from there and go shopping for supper.

For heaven’s sake, will you please get away from him?

 

C. Most of the time in colloquial American English, “at” hardly gets pronounced at all.

The vowel is little more than a grunt, and the “t” is not really exploded.

at的尾音[t]不发音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

at school, at home, at the picnic, at the movies, at night, at camp

I brought it from Mary.

I got it from the store.

He’s home from overseas.

I got back from dad’s office.

②Additional drills

It’s different at school these days.

Back at the ranch, the family members were all at the table.

That’s a problem at all levels of government.

Be here at ten o’clock sharp!

He always seems to be at odds with the whole world.

 

D. Unless there’s a special reason to stress them, “and” and “or” usually degenerate into [n] and [ə] again, listen to the tape for the specific demonstrations.

若非特殊强调两者并列或两者选其一,and读成[n],or读成[ə]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

This and that, Mary and Paul, Spanish and French

Spanish and French, French or Spanish

Don’t study French and Spanish, study French or Spanish.

Go to school or to the beach.

②Additional drills

Sam and i went to the baseball game.

There are good and bad reasons for everything.

Bill or Fred will get it for Barbara and me.

You can have ham and eggs with pancakes or toast.

Tell mother or father that you and frank will be late.

 

E. “are” often degenerates into a simple sound, especially when the word is part of a question.

在口语中are一般读成短元音[ə],当它在句子中间更是如此。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Where are you going?

Who are they?

What are they doing?

Where are we having the party?

Who are they?

②Additional drills

What are the chances that there are enough chairs here?

When are we going to see you again?

Where are the family members going to meet?

 

F. “your” and “you’re” are usually pronounced [jə] in every day’s colloquial speech.

①Repeat after Dr. David

Lend me your book.

Give me your dentist’s phone number.

Who is your teacher this year?

You’re coming home tonight.

Tell me when you’re ready.

You’re going to the party, aren’t you?

当然,读成[a:nt, ja]或是[a:n, tju:]都是可以的。前者就好比看美剧时常看到的see ja,有点古英文的味道,后者则使我想起小时候老师教的I’m fine. Thank you, and you? 中的连读。

②Additional drills

You’re always saying that your kids are causing trouble.

Your waiter will be here when you’re ready to order.

Your every dream comes true when you wish upon your star.

 



第22课

January 2, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-3 Those Crazy Consonant Clusters

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/aq7dy7cs

 

Dr. David: Speakers from many languages fail to pronounce all stages consonant clusters(辅音连缀)–combinations of two or more consonant clusters, at the ends of words. This section is important for everyone. Pay particular attention if your first language is Spanish, or any of the East Asian languages.

 

1. Clusters with “S” And “T”

_____

 

A. “ST” clusters do add a soft, exploding “t” sound.

St的尾音是一个轻轻的,爆破的[t]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

east, dentist, test, fast, boost, cost

②Additional drills

blessed, crossed, beast, cast, roast, most, lost, post, bust

(在3-2-1-B里曾讲过:以p,k,s,sh结尾的单词加ed后,ed发[t]。)

 

B. “TS” clusters are pronounced as one affricate sound.

Affricate Sound: It is produced by first blocking the air stream and then by letting the air squeeze out the narrow channel formed by the two articulators.

塞擦音:口腔中构成阻碍的两个部分先完全闭塞,再压迫气流把闭塞部分冲开一条窄缝,气流从窄缝中挤出,摩擦成声。

Make it one sound not two.

连起来发成一个音,几乎听不到[t]的音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

sits, heats, bets, hats, suits, puts, pots

②Additional drills

get, lets, gates, bats, aristocrats, boats, boots

 

C. “STS” clusters begin with a simple “S” and the add the “TS” affricate

把前两个连在一起,发起来好像一个[s]出来后,停顿很短的一小会(此时是[t]的口型,几乎听不到的音),又是一个[s]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

dentists, tests, fasts, boosts, feasts, dusts, costs

②Additional drills

beasts, casts, roasts, posts, busts, costs, molests

 

2. Clusters with “S” and “K”

_____

 

A. “S” clusters add a softly exploding “K” to the simple “S”.

①Repeat after Dr. David

Ask. Task, desk, musk, tusk

②Additional drills

brisk, risk, bisque, bask, mosque

 

B. The “KS” cluster is also pronounced as one affricative sound.

①Repeat after Dr. David

breaks, sex, socks, backs, corks, box, blocks

②Additional drills

takes, rakes, mocks, peaks, beaks

pokes, dukes, trucks, lox

 

C. The “SKS” cluster begins with a simple “S” and then adds the “KS” affricate

中间的[k]发得短促就可以了,听作者朗读,我总觉得此时的[k]比之前同位置的[t]要明显。

①Repeat after Dr. David

asks, tasks, desks, musks, tusks

②Additional drills

risks, bisques, basks, mosques(n. pl.清真寺)

 

3. Sentences combined with different clusters.

①Repeat after Dr. David

I must ask you to travel east and west in the states.

He sits at the desk.

She puts paper on the desks.

He eats lox after loading the trucks.

Two apples cost a nickel, but one costs three cents.

The dentist boasts about how much gold costs.

She lifts her gifts out of the box.

②Additional drills

He gets into locked gates at a reasonable cost.

Don’t risk the brisk water of cold lakes.

Making masks takes great cost and many efforts.

Scientists’ time is costlier in the west than in the east.

 

4. Additional voiceless clusters 以清辅音为尾音的辅音连缀

①Repeat after Dr. David

[ps]-Dips, hips, apes, troupes, groups

[ft]-Lift, aft, soft, laughed, goofed, loafed

[fts]-Lifts, sifts, gifts, drafts

Two sounds not three.

中间的辅音是几乎不发的,有个短暂的嘴型即可。

[fθ]-Fifth, sixth

[fθs]-Fifths, sixths

He fails his tests because he loafs in class.

The sixth line of troupes will climb the Alps.

He lifts weights to get rid of soft hips.

She studies arts and crafts during fifth period.

②Additional drills

Grapes were left over from the gift packages.

Parachute drops get easier after the seventh try.

The sixth grader laughed after the fifth grader goofed.

Doctors can graft soft skin onto your hips.

 

5. Clusters which contain at least one Voiced consonant. 浊辅音后的尾音要发出来。

①Repeat after Dr. David

grant, dent, can’t, blunt, sent

hand, sand, end, send, blend

camp, damp, hemp

help, kelp, alps, scalps

rents, dents, grants, bunts

hand, sands, ends, blends

I sent him to wash his hands.

It rains hard in camp.

The sands at the ends of the beach were covered with kelp.

My scalp itches and burns from the suds.

②Additional drills

Grant me the help I need to end the problems.

Lend me your hands to get the dents out of the car.

The boxing champ can’t stand the damp smell of the gym.

Pretend that camp has ended and you got your research grant.

 



第21课

January 1, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-2 Is It S Or Z? Is It T Or D?

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/e6kovvvx

 

1. Adding “ed” for past tense verbs

_____

 

A. If the verb ends in “d” or “t” the past tense will add the full syllable [ed]. But most Americans will pronounce it as if it were [id].

过去式加ed,e发[i]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Now I hand to him.

Yesterday I handed to him.

I can grant the wish.

Yesterday I granted the wish.

hand/handed

head/headed

grade/graded

parade/paraded

请注意下面动词的过去式,最后一个音节是[tid],但在3-1我们知道,[t]夹在两元音之间应该轻轻发成[d],即seated的美音读法应该是[‘si:did]。

seat/seated

greet/greeted

treat/treated

They headed north.

He wore a knitted sweater.

They adopted a child.

②Additional drills

Seeded, beaded, aided, raided, traded, wooded, carded, regarded, pitted,

Patted, grated, kindhearted, booted, suited, started

 

B. If a regular verb ends in “p”, “k”, “s”, or “sh”, the past tense will add a softly exploding “t” sound.

以p,k,s,sh结尾的单词加ed后,ed发[t]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

sip/sipped

map/mapped

cracked, kissed, missed, fished, crashed

②Additional drills

Caped, seeped, chipped, ripped, hoped, hopped, backed, baked, poked,

Soaked, missed, harassed, wished, cashed

B*. But if any of these words (which now end in a “t” sound) come right before words beginning with vowel sound, that imaginary “t” is now medial. Now that it’s between vowels again, it will Americanize to a soft “d”.

但当四种动词的过去式再接以元音开头的单词时,即出现双元音夹一辅音的情况,则要发回其对应清辅音[d]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

[t]

[d]

I sipped the drink.

I sipped it.

He cracked the glass.

He cracked it.

I kissed the book.

I kissed it.

I cashed the check.

I cashed in the bonds.

②Additional drills

Chipped open, ripped off, hoped a lot, backed away, apple, missed everybody,

Packed, hopped along, poked in the ribs

 

C. If a regular verb ends in any sounds other than “t”, “d”, “p”, “k”, “s” or “sh”, the past tense will add a “d” and no extra syllable in the word.

除去A和B提到六种情况,其他动词的过去式ed均用[d]发音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

soloed-I soloed in the plane.

played-I played the part of Hamlet.

skied-I skied down the hill.

seemed-She seemed to be doing well.

canned-we canned the vegetable.

stirred-They stirred the nesger.

resolved-John resolved the problem yesterday.

②Additional drills

Bribed, died, denied, judged, handled, rammed, planned, discovered, favored,

Saved, played, enjoyed, annoyed

 

2. Adding “s” to nouns or verbs

_____

 

A. The added “s” or “es” is pronounced as an unvoiced “s” only when the root word ends in “p”, “t”, “k”, or “f”.

以p,t,k,f结尾的单词加复数,发[s]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

hip/hips, sip/sips, cap/caps, stop/stops

sits/sits, bet/bets, Pocket/pockets

sack/sacks, break/breaks, chuck/chuck’s

cliff/cliffs, brief/briefs, safe/safes

Some words ending in “f” actually change their spelling to “v” In the plural. You then follow the rule for “v” instead of “f”.

部分以f结尾的单词变复数需改f为v再加es,此时发[vs]d的音。

Leaf/leaves, half/halves

②Additional drills

dopes, hops, mops, hopes

seats, greets, goats

racks, racks, shakes, stocks, socks

giraffes, bluffs

 

B. The added “s”or “es” is pronounced as the full syllable “[ez]” or “[iz]” when root word ends in any of the following sounds: “s”, “z”, “sh”, “gh”, “ch” or “dg”.

以s和z,sh和zh,gh,ch和dg结尾的单词加复数,发[iz]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

glass/glasses, two busses, He misses me.

buzzes, raises, praises, roses,

bushes, brushes, pushes,

churches, crutches, bunches,

judge’s, badges, rages

②Additional drills

kisses, hisses, pieces, releases, places, reces, graces, freezes, breezes,

blazes, seizes, poses, pushes, cashes, lurches. Lunches, crutches, garages,

lodges, catches

 

C. The added “s” or “es” is pronounced as the voiced “z” (without an extra vowel and without forming an extra syllable), when the root ends in any vowel sound or in any consonants except the ones in the last two categories.

以元音或其他辅音(不包括t,d,p,k,s,z,sh,ch,gh,dg)结尾的单词加复数,发[s]音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

pianos, days, skies, shoes, cows, cries

sings, signs, hems

bribes, heads, bags, saves

②Additional drills

grows, rows, plays, sees, agrees, blows, photos, bows, wines, hands, begs,

graves, king’s, graves, waves, borrows, men’s



第20课

December 30, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-1 What Are We Going To Do About The “T”?

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhdxfzz9

 

1. Medial “T” becomes soft “D”

分别有以下三种情况:

_____

 

A. When “T” falls between two vowel sounds and when the syllable before the “T” is stressed, Americans pronounce it as a lightly tapped “D” instead of a “T”.

T出现在两个元音之间,或是T的前一个音节重读,美音习惯将[t]轻轻地发成[d],作者甚至把它称作the almost [d] sound。

①Repeat after Dr. David

The beautiful British writer scattered the letters.

better, sister, greater, hitter

②Additional drills

sitting, sister, later, latest, greater, greatest, automatic, sixty, seventy, eighty,

ninety, button, utmost, latter

 

B. The same thing happens when “T” falls after a vowel and before an “L”. The “D” sound does not explode off the teeth but opens directly into the throat for the “L”.

当T出现在L前面,[dl]这个音要连起来发,不要停顿。

①Repeat after Dr. David

cattle, rattle, battle, bottle, settle

②Additional drills

kettle metal, mottled, fiddle, riddle

 

C. The same thing happens when the “T” falls after an “N” and before a vowel sound.

T夹在元音和N之间。

①Repeat after Dr. David

center, renter, granted

But notice that the “D” created in these words is softer and a bit closer to the teeth than the “Real D” in the words SENDER and RENDER.

这种情况下,[d]要比正常的[d]要快,不做停留。

②Additional drills

winter, Santa, granter, vented, fainted, printed

 

D. A “medial T” will stay an exploded “T” sound when the following syllable (the syllable started by the “T”) is stressed.

重读若在[t]之前的音节,轻轻发[d],如attic;重读在[t]所在的音节,还是发[t],如attach。注意重读符号的位置。

①Repeat after Dr. David

attack [ə’tæk] ,attic [‘ætik]

Italian [i’tæljən], Italy [‘itəli]

Atomic [ə’tɔmik], atom [‘ætəm]

automobile, momenta, attitude, city, etcetera

②Additional drills

retail, retain, auditorium, attempt, predatory, petition

 

2. the Final “T”

_____

 

A. In American speech, the “final T” usually doesn’t explode. The tongue hits the gum ridge (in the position for the “T” and just stays there.

[t]不要爆破发出来,舌头停在牙龈处,做到[t]的尾音不明显。

①Repeat after Dr. David

hit, hat, what, visit, credit, habit, about, boat

hit them, get shoes, bet numbers

读完第一个单词后,作者强调slide the [t] to the next,即为了使[t]不明显。

hardship, cod liver oil, head shrinker (俚.精神病医生)

类似地,连起来发,使尾音[d]不明显。

②Additional drills

bait, wait, gate, feet, feet, greet, eat, sit, fit, permit, goat, coat

head south, bat the ball, hat size, bad situation, start singing

 

B. When final “T” is followed by a word that begins with a vowel sound, it acts like a medial “T” and becomes a soft “D”.

尾音[t]后边接元音开头的单词,也轻轻地发[d]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I don’t get it.

Right away.

Dinner at eight.

Hit it over the fence.

②Additional drills

Get over here

a pot of gold

film at eleven

Please set it down.

That isn’t it.

She’s smart enough.

He sat on the chai

They got away.

 

C. Another exception: when final “T” ends a consonant cluster and follows either an “N” or a voiceless consonant, you do need a very soft release of the “T” sound.

例外:当尾音[t]前面是[n]或清辅音,要发轻轻地发回原来的[t]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

grant, plant, tent, point, count

作者强调it’s not a really powerful explosion,记住Keep this [t] explosion very soft.

insist, cast, shift, lift, act, respect, slept, kept

②Additional drills

hint, tint, sent, paint, punt, runt, haunt, wouldn’t mist,

fist, waist, gift, expect, sipped, last, boast, roast

 

D. Finally, the sounds “K” and “P” act almost the same way as the “T” when in medial position. They don’t explode into the vowel. In fact, they tend to sound more like “G” and “B”.

同样地,[k]和[p]夹在两个元音之间,轻轻地发成各自对应的清辅音[g]和[b]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

soccer, pocket, pickle, ticket, accurate, actual

track it, back off, a pack of gums

supper, happy, capture

a sip of water, a map of Europe, creep around

②Additional drills

back up, a sack of flour, the peak of health

pack it tightly, hop over, sip slowly

a cup of coffee, with his cap on

 



第19课

December 29, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-8 Relaxing After Final Consonants

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/aq7dtatb

 

Dr. David: People from many languages tend to use too much energy on final consonants. This can cause extra puffs of air or even extra vowel sounds to attach to the Ends of words. Pay particular attention to this section if your first language is Italian, Greek, or Korean. There’s also some tendency to explode too hard with some speakers of other East Asian languages.

 

1. Voiceless Final Consonants

①Repeat after Dr. David

safe/a safe place

tooth/tooth decay

ice/ice cream

publish/publish the book

sip/sip the drink

②Additional drills

sit/sit there

sick/the sick child

half/half priced

fifth/fifth generation

promise/promise me

tip/tip that waitress

top/top drawer

rock/rock pile

parish/parish priest

 

2. Voiced Final Consonants

①Repeat after Dr. David

have/have time

jazz/jazz singer

cab/cab driver

side/side street

drag/drag the furniture

②Additional drills

prove/prove that

praise/praise the lord

ebb/ebb tide

road/road work

lag/lag behind

I feel safe when i leave and my relief shows up.

Not having enough love can cause great grief.

This is as good as it gets.

This happened because his rose garden was beautiful.

Stop the cab!

Can the cop nab the criminal?

The baby can’t sleep in that crib.

The hotel let me keep the rose.

Don’t kick the dog.

He was struck on the back by a plastic bag.

The pig picked up a jug of water.

Crack open the keg.

Let the seed sit on the ground.

You need a hat on your head on hot days.

Get outside and walk around a bit.

He had to avoid getting hit in the head.

 



第18课

December 29, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-7 Voiced & Voiceless Consonant Pairs

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/dnhf29eb

 

Dr. David: Many Europeans have trouble pronouncing voiceless consonants at the ends of words. This is particularly true when coming from German, Russian, and other Slavic languages. Some Asian speakers also have difficulty with the voiceless forms particularly those from Vietnam and other parts of Southeast Asia.

 

1. [ʃ] and [ʒ]

①Repeat after Dr. David

beige(adj.米黄色的)/bash

loge/gauche

brush/rouge

visual/vicious

delicious/collision

cashier/casual

②Additional drills

prestige/quiche(n.乳蛋饼)

garage/harsh

I was ashamed that i bashed the cashier in the face.

Stash the cash on the shelf of the garage.

Do i have permission to finish pining on the corsage?

The shark envisioned itself close to the ocean shore.

It’s a shame to delay the occasion.

 

2. [f] and [v]

①Repeat after Dr. David

safe/save

have/half

relief/relieve

grieve/grief

[v]- cave, behave, Steve

I have half of the leaf.

I feel safe when i leave and my relief shows up.

②Additional drills

Love/enough shelves/shelf wave/waif groove/roof grove/loaf leave/leaf

I’d love to live off the land.

Give of yourself when you have money.

I can save myself if i have to.

Not having enough love can cause grief.

 

3. [θ] and [ð]

①Repeat after Dr. David

teeth/teethe

New teeth make a baby teethe.

sooth/soothe

The soothsayer(n.预言家) can soothe away your worries.

bath/bathe

He can bathe in the bath tub.

[θ]-fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh eighth, ninth, tenth

②Additional drills

He bathed for the fourth time.

The dentist can soothe your tooth with clove oil.

The will teethe when he gets his new tooth.

 

4. [p] and [b]

①Repeat after Dr. David

cab/cap

tab/tap

cop/cob

[b]-tribe, crib, cab, crab, hub

Stop the cab!

Can the cop nab the criminal?

The hotel let me keep the robe(n.长袍).

②Additional drills

Slip/crib slept/ebb cap/cab corrupt/hub crape/abe rope/robe curb/burp

The baby can’t sleep in that crib.

Wear a bib and sip this cup of soup.

You can’ t stop that tribe.

 

5. [k] and [g]

①Repeat after Dr. David

sack/sag

mug/muck

hock/hog

bag/back

[g]-pig, brag, drag, big, mug

Crack open the keg!

Don’t kick the dog!

He was struck on the back by a plastic bag.

②Additional drills

peck/peg

lock/log

rag/rack

lag/lack

stack/stag

pig/pick

jock/jog

The keg gorged a crack at the back of the green doghouse.

Greg can kick the ball back over the log.

The big picked up a jug of water.

He has a big chip on his shoulder.

Drag that sack back inside.

 

6. [t] and [d]

①Repeat after Dr. David

seat/seed

sad/sat

height/hide

[d]-bead, bread, said, had

②Additional drills

Bet/bet

rate/raid

fade/fate

feet/feed

grade/great

paid/pate

set/said

Let the seed sit on the ground.

You need a hat on your head on hot days.

Get outside and walk around a bit.

I hit my head a lot when I’m tired.

 



第17课

December 23, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-6 the Nasal Consonants

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhdx3f7u

 

1. the [ m ]

Spelling:

“m” or “mm” as in man camp hamper hammer

①Repeat after Dr. David

mother, move, motion, tomorrow, Mary

(Don’t push your lip too much or press them together with too much force.

发[m]不要强抿着嘴。)

My mother hopes I’ll marry in the month of May.

Many moons ago a man made a map of Minnesota.

②Additional drills

Meet, mitten, Mexico, map, moose, moss, mop, mother, mail, most, mile,

Mouse, moist, mere, moors, marble, ham, temper, empty, important, simple,

Jim, slim, game, home, immense, imitate, ember, consumer, coming, summer,

Swarming, calm, some, team

My mother was emotional when she came home from Maine.

Mike mixed cream and mint into my mild emulsion

Crime-mongers claim that criminals can’t reform.

Make hammering noises sometime after early morning.

In most of the time his slam-dunk motion is monotonous.

 

2. the [n]

Dr. David: The next two sounds — [n] and [ŋ]–cause the most Difficulty for East Asian language speakers. This is particularly true for Chinese and Southeast Asian languages.

So pay particular attention to these two sounds, and the drills which contrast them. You also find speakers of German, Yiddish, Russian, and other Slavic languages will put extra “k” at the end of the “ng” consonant.

Spellings :

“n” or “nn” as in Nancy, name, man

“kn” as in knee, knit

“pn” as in pneumonia, pneumatic

For the [n], your tongue goes right up behind the top teeth, use the side of your tongue against the side of your teeth.

赖世雄老师的美音指南是这样描述的:双唇微张,舌尖上扬轻轻抵住上齿龈,振动声带,气息由鼻腔出来。

①Repeat after Dr. David

name, neighbor, no, narrow, Nancy, noble

Ann, sand, sin, brain, rain, ben, soon

Don’t keep your tongue back, keep it forwards.

②Additional drills

knee, nip, nebula, napkin, noon, neutral, knob, number, nail, notice,

nice, now, near, nautical, number, nail, notice, nice, now, near, nautical,

number, nail, notice, nice, north, enough, interest, enter, antics, soonest,

Tawny, tainted, toner, downy, teen, grin, pen, pain, pun, spoon, spawn

You never know when to stop the nonsense.

I’m not annoyed at Noah for negotiation the annuity.

He’s interested in taking the tainted products away.

Sit inside the pavilion instead of in the sun.

Is anyone interested in annotating the notebook?

Ned announced which train was arriving next.

 

3. the [ŋ]

Spellings:

“ng” as in sang, rang, crying

“n(k)” as in rank, sank

Instead of bringing your tongue forwards and up, bring it back and up. Let the sound come out in your nose with no explosion.

舌头的后部上扬,抵住上颚,气体从鼻腔出来。

_____

 

A. followed “g”

①Repeat after Dr. David

reading, writing, jumping, dancing

rang, fang, tang, sing

Don’t put hard explosion in [g], let the sound without it.

②Additional drills

running, arguing, yelling, scraping, cutting, bring, ring, finger,

Linger, gang, hang, clang, mangle, pang, sting

 

B. followed by “k”

①Repeat after Dr. David

sank, rank, frank, sink, drink, tank

②Additional drills

bank, canker, dank, hanker, clank, plank, swank, vanquish(v.征服)

Ran/rang, fan/fang, tan/tang, sin/sing

Sank, rank, frank, sink, drink, rank, tank

 

C. Contrast

①Repeat after Dr. David

ran/rang/rank

tan/tang/tank

sin/sing/sink

Don’t sing songs about sin.

He ran over and ranked the gong.

I plan to bring Frank a rowing machine.

He’s walking along the sand and getting a tan.

②Additional drills

Sing songs about running and laughing at the rink.

I like things which bring admiring fans to the brink of tears.

Exercising his swimming and diving style was a passing hobby.

He’s coming around here every morning and waking up the sleeping Children.

 



第16课

December 21, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-5 New Consonants, New Problems

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clq903ph

 

1. The “S”

_____

 

A. Initial [ s ]

Dr. David: Speakers from the following languages have the strongest tendencies to put an extra vowel sound before the initial “S” — Spanish, Korean, & Chinese and Southeast Languages.

Don’t put a vowel before it, just no voice.

不要在[s]前边加上元音,只需轻轻发出“丝”,记得不要有声音。

Spellings:

“s” as in snake clocks

“c” as in center concern

①Repeat after Dr. David

save, some, several, science, somewhere, celebrate,

soggy, state, station, student, start, stomach, stop, stubborn

Something special happened this summer.

My sister is still sitting by my side.

The students stayed away from the stove.

The speaker started to scream about the station.

②Additional drills

seal, sip, set, sat, socks, sane, sociology, seem, seep, sill, separate,

everal, century, sang, star stand, stove, steel, stenography, stereo, safest, sincerely, cinema

 

B. “S” pronounced as “[z]”

①Repeat after Dr. David

as, was, does, those, his, has, is, easy

houses, whose, reason, rise, use, position, resolve

pause, phrase, deposit, transfer, surprise

It was as easy as that.

There is a surprise for you in the house.

Who caused you to transfer those musicians?

②Additional drills

dissolve, cause, praise, phrase, positive,

applause, dissolve, preserve, because, musician

Whose idea was it to build those houses?

It isn’t as good as it was because of the materials they used.

 

2. Consonants behind the “S”

_____

 

A. the [ʃ]

Spelling:

“sh” as in sharp, cash “s” as in sugar, sure

“c” as in ocean

“ss” as in passion

“t” as in diction, action

①Repeat after Dr. David

share, shield, shell, shock, shine

Show me where the shower is.

I’m sure you shouldn’t shoot the shotgun.

The sun is shining on the shore.

Show me what good diction can accomplish

“-tion”, ”-ssion” :

diction, election, action, passion, admission

②Additional drills

shield, shimmer, shell, sham, shoot, shook, shock, shudder, shame, shine, shower,

shore, shark, sheer, ocean, motion, diction, transition, creation,

sensation, quiche, accomplish, finish, diminish, cash

 

B. the [tʃ]

Dr. David: Pay particular attention to this sound if your first language is French. Don’t substitute the “[ʃ]” sound for this one.

二外学法文的同学可能清楚大卫这句话的意思。

Spellings:

“ch” as in chip

“tch” as in pitch

①Repeat after Dr. David

chair, chime, catch, change, charming

The child on the chair hurt his chin.

I need change to buy some chocolate.

The charming children are playing checkers.

②Additional drills

cheap, chip, chamber, chastise, chew, choke, chocolate, Richmond,

exchequer(国库), searching, mischief, lurch, match, attach, much

 

C. contrasting “[tʃ]” and “[ʃ]”

①Repeat after Dr. David

sherry/cherry share/chair show/choke

There’s a chance of rain showers.

The children are at the shore.

I shall change shoes when I get a chance.

The shallow channel was full of sharks.

②Additional drills

chill/shill

harp/char

chip/ship

shop/chop

china/shiny

wish/witch

ash/itch

cash/catch

 

D. the [ʒ]

Same tongue position as [ʃ] but keep the voice going

[ʃ]和[ʒ]是两个对应的清浊辅音,发[ʒ]要振动声带

Spellings:

“s” as in vision

“g” as in prestige

①Repeat after Dr. David

division, explosion, vision, confusion, decision,

loge, corsage, prestige, garage, beige

②Additional drills

envisioned, occasion, confusion, derision

 

3. Confusing the letters “j” & “g”

_____

 

A. the [ d3 ]

Dr. David: French speakers often pronounce this sound as zh, while Spanish speakers often use an h. but, as with so many other sounds, this consonant really should be practiced by everybody.

Spellings:

“g” as in gem, gender

“j” as in James, Jack

“dg” as in judge

①Repeat after Dr. David

Joe, James, john, joke, jury, jeep, gymnasium, jeopardy

Joe was the general riding in the jeep.

Jim waited for the judge to jump in the air.

②Additional drills

gyp, jack, Jewish, jaw, logical, hinges, advantage, engineer, legion, lodge, image, advantage, budge

 

B. the [h]

Dr. David: many languages use a very harsh or throaty h-sound. this is especially true in some dialects of Spanish, as well as Russian, German, and Greek.

The American [h] has to be nice and soft. “Hurry in here, Henry.”

发[h]要温柔。

Spellings :

“h” as in hit

①Repeat after Dr. David

help, house, hospital, holy, Henry

I hear that geometry is just the same as logic.

The judge handed the jury his decision.

②Additional drills

heel, him, help, hale,

hoop, hook, hall, hop, hug, hope, hail

 

C. Contrasting [dʒ] and [h]

jim/him

joe/hope

jill/hill

jeep/heap

jail/hail

Hester/jester

hope/joke

holly/jolly

house/joust

 

D. the [ j ]

Dr. David: Spanish speakers are most likely to substitute a dg sound for the y-glide. Also remember that in many European languages, this sound is spelled with the letter “j.”

Spellings:

“y” as in young, yes, yellow, yoke, yesterday, yard

“u” as in union, university, usual, uranium

“j” as in Johansson, Jespersen (European pronunciation)

①Repeat after Dr. David

young, yes, yellow, yoke, yesterday, yard, union, university, usual, uranium

②Additional drills

yield, yippee, yams, you, yawn, yacht, Yale, yeoman, yikes, years,

As yet, the yellow bird hasn’t yelled its song.

Years ago, young people attended Yale University.

He yawned while eating yams last year.

Don’t you usually get seasick on yacht rides?

Uranium used to yield energy.

 

E. Contrasting [j] and [dʒ]

①Repeat after Dr. David

yellow/jello

yale/jail

young/jungle

yes/jess

Young George joined the New York Yankees.

Yes, Jess is the name of my young son.

Joe yelled at George who was in the jewelry store.

②Additional drills

jewel/Yule

jell/yell

yodel/Joel

year/jeer

yoke/joke

yard/jar

yawn/jaw

union/June

 



第15课

December 20, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-4 Reviewing Difficult Consonants

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhds4g9a

 

1. [r] and [l]

Dr. David: The American-style initial R-Sound should be practiced by speakers of all other first language groups. Of course, R/L confusion usually takes place with speakers of East Asian language -those of Japan, China, Korea, and Southease Aisa. Be particularly careful not to insert the extra vowel sound when the “R” follows other consonants if you are a speaker of Hindi (and other subcontinent languages), Arabic, Farsi(波斯语), and Togo log.

 

A. The [ r ]

Spelling:

“r” as in run, truck, front

Remember, you still make the [r] with the backward move of the tongue or by curling your tongue tip up and back. Just like you did on the R-shaded vowel.

①Repeat after Dr. David

red, rose, Rome, reach, rent, remember

green, fried, crash, brew, break, freight

tree, try, trouble, trick

The tree is growing from the lawn.

I had trouble broiling(烤) the fresh fish.

It’s true that I’m proud of the winter crop.

②Additional drills

repeat

rid

rest

rat

root

rookie

rough

run

rake

roast

rye

round

royal

rear

rural

rotten

roar

tree

free

trip

grid

Fred

tread

true

brew

crook

broad

trust

crop

tropic

grade

thrill

chrome

grown

freight

trial

crowd

proud

trash

crash

Remember the Red River Rovers whenever revisiting Texas.

Real estate agents read listings regularly.

Trucks from the farm ravaged the remaining structures.

Retractors really roll away from your grip.

Red roses represent real royalty there in France.

 

B. The [l]

Spelling:

“I” or “II” as in long, lost, hall

①Repeat after Dr. David

love, loan, election, sell

②Additional drills

leap

lick

let

latch

loop

look

lost

lot

luck

element

elaborate

illuminate

Alabama

political

peel

pill

spell

gal

pool

pull

toll

tail

girl

Listen, Larry, we’d like to level with you about your lawn.

Until eleven it’s less likely to happen.

Spelling takes a toll on the girl’s listening abilities.

The lesson learned is clearly about loving your daily labor.

 

C. Contrasting [r] and [l]

①Repeat after Dr. David

The tongue move back for the [r] and forward for the [l].

The long river looks really lovely.

Lucy was real lucky.

The rent is likely to rise later.

A lot of rain leaked through the roof.

②Additional drills

Element/error

Load/road

Wrong/long

Illness/irregular

Rug/lug

Rust/lust

Regulate/legislate

Roast/close

Royal/loyal

 

2.[v]and [w]

Dr. David: Pay particular attention to the V and W formations and contrasts if your first language is GERMAN, RUSSIAN, other SLAVIC languages, as well as Finnish, Hungarian, Norwegian, SWEDISH, and DANISH, FARSI, HINDI and other languages of the subcontinent.

__________

 

A. The [v]

Spellings:

“v” as in very, have

“f” as in of

①Repeat after Dr. David

very, every, vote, have, voice, save

②Additional drills

veal

visit

voodoo

Vaughn

vacate

vote

vibrate

void

veer

vary

vat

fever

harvest

avoid

save

grieve

relieve

love

shelves

wave

groove

grove

leave

 

B. The [ w ]

Common Spellings:

“w” as in will, work, west

“u+another vowel” as in quick, square

Occasional Spelling:

“wh” as in which, when, whether

Dr. David: There are many parts of the United States where the [w] sound is pronounced with a slight, voiceless air puff before the lip glide when the word contains the “wh” spelling.

①Repeat after Dr. David

will, want, worry, west, watch, was, Wednesday

②Additional drills

We

Will

West

Wax

Wooed

Walk

Wok

Woke

Wake

Wow

War

Were

West

Want

Which

Want

Whale

When

White

whip

 

C. Contrasting [v] and [w]

①Repeat after Dr. David

Victor was very worried.

I want to vote next Wednesday.

Everyone was visiting the west coast.

I never worked very hard on Wednesday evenings.

②Additional drills

West/vest

Worse/verse

Went/vent

Velma/well

 

D. Contrasting [r], [v] and [w]

①Repeat after Dr. David

[r]

[w]

[v]

Rest

West

vest

Rain

Wayne

Vain

Real

Wheel

Veal

Rail

Whale

vale

②Additional drills

rill

will

villain

Rome

won’t

vote

rye

why

violent

round

wound

vow

 

3. [b] and [v]

__________

 

A. The [b ]

Dr. David: Spanish speakers must pay closest attention to the contrast between the American “B” and “V” consonants.]

Spellings:

“b” or “bb” as in bear, cab, cabbage

①Repeat after Dr. David

berry, boat, bank, about, borrow, boat, baseball

②Additional drills

beet

big

beg

bag

boot

book

bought

bottom

but

bail

boat

bite

bout

boy

boar

beer

abe

robe

boob

hub

bribe

ebb

verb

cable

cribbage

cubic

cobble

cab

 

B. Contrasting [b] and [v]

①Repeat after Dr. David

The boat is very big.

Can the boy visit his brother victor?

I have to borrow five bank notes.

I have better vision from the back row.

②Additional drills

Very/berry

Verb/bird

Bid/video

Vote/boat

Veil/bail

Bill/villain

Ben/venerable

Average/about

 



第14课

December 19, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-3 R-Shaded Vowels

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/e6kwdvn4

 

Dr. David: Many language groups such as Spanish, Italian, Portuguese(European), and Russian roll or trill the R-sounds with the front of the tongue. Others, such as French, Hebrew, German, and Portuguese(Brazil) produce a throaty R-Shading, or, in the case of Japanese, Chinese and other East Asian speakers, move it toward the sound of the L. American-style R-Shadings (as well as initial R-Sounds) must be practiced by speaker from all first language groups.

R是尾音,像阴影一样跟着,所以叫R-Shaded。

__________

 

1. In American speech, we don’t tap off all the tongue. We don’t use a friction sound in the back of the tongue in the palate.

跟读大卫,练习下面的元音。(tap off 那里应该是听错了,有点解释不通,请同学帮我听听正确的)

 

A. [a:]

car, star, far

(Don’t hold either above or the R-shaded very long. Get into the R fast and get out of it fast. 不要拉长音。)

tar, par, bar, card, start

This type of R-shaded can come after many different vowels in diphthongs. In every case, pull back and up into that R with your rare tongue muscle. Feel the vibration near the opening of your throat.

这个“R阴影”是许多复合元音的尾音。要用舌头的后部肌肉来发,并且感受到咽喉的震动。

B. [ə]

mother, sister, helper, summer,, winter, dancer, player

C. [ə:]

earth, cursed, thirsty, first, German, verb, word, worm

D. [ɔ:]

shore, more, core, exploring, boring, cord

E. [iə]

ear, cheer, appeared, sincere, career, beer

F. [uə]

sure, poor, secure, endure, jury

G.ə]

air, pair, stairs, care, wear, fairly, prepare

H. Mixing Practice

My mother and father went here and there.

My brother Carl had a hard time finding work.

Don’t you care about the poor workers?

Last winter the deer hunter got very scared.

The foreman of the jury was a sincere leader.

Mr. Jones had a beer party every summer for ten years.

 

2. Additional drills of vowels

 

A. [ə]

runner

brother

father

worker

singer

player

sister

later

master

dance

helper

mother

letter

neither

reader

lighter

weaker

nicer

carrier

writer

The burglar and his helper stirred up such a clamor.

My mother, my father, my sister and brother thank you.

The runner staggered over the hill.

Either was a good talker, but she never wrote letters.

This summer went faster and further than last.

B. [ə:]

earth

earnest

first

search

perfect

cursed

worst

hurdle

early

worse

thirst

serve

worm

word

German

curve

verb

Herman was the first to win thirty games.

The German hurdler was the scourge of the early games.

Carl and Marlin formed an artful partnership.

Park the car in Harvard Yard.

The two sergeants are college archery partners.

Are all the place guards qualified marksmen?

Arthur charged out of the arbor unharmed.

C. [ɔ:]

four

door

more

pour

orphan

shore

before

explore

ignore

Orville(人名)

implore

core

nor

sore

fortune

score

shores

Fourteen bored sportsmen adorned the shore.

Forty gory creatures poured through the French doors.

The spores were found in the core of the ornament.

The Concord poured forth exhaust causing sore throats.

More and more support came forth for the orphans’ party.

D. [iə]

jeer

clear

queer

appear

peer

sincere

weird

near

cheer

rear

career

steer

here

spear

deer

beer

tears

Never fear, the wheel to steer is near the gear shift.

The earring fell clear of the nearby pool.

Be sincere my dear; it’s a queer world.

I’m sincere about wanting the deer to appear this year.

A key of beer appeared near the rear window.

E. [uə]

you’re

tour

insure

poor

lure

allure

sure

secure

jury

azure

endure

cure

moor

velour

contour

You’re sure you can endure the long tour?

Poor hunters offer no allure to sure-shots.

Insurance is a poor risk on guided tours.

The cure for polio makes Salk’s name endure.

I’m secure that Mr. Moore will endure.

F.ə]

hair

barely

dare

everywhere

lair

pear

fair

careful

prepare

scare

rare

air

there

stairs

care

wear

impair

blare

repair

aware

An air of excitement rarely blares down the stairs.

Where did the polar bear go?

Pay your fare, then tell the driver where to go.

The flu scare was hard to bear.

Where can I get my hair cut very carefully?



第13课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-2 More Diphthongs and Vowels

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhd3z2cr

(第二课的内容是讲三个复合元音和三个单元音,形式与之前2-1的一样,只是篇幅小了很多,所以这一课我就不再拆分出2-2-1之类的了。录音比较短,不过仍有跟读、独自和对比练习。)

 1. Diphthong

__________

 

A. The Long [ai]

Common spelling:

“i+consonant+e” as in life, advice

“y” as in pylon(高压电线塔), shy, dry

“i” as in virus, crisis, China

Occasional spellings:

“igh” as in high, fight

“ai” as in aisle(通道)

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

I’m, fine, arrive, climb, trial

_____

②Additional drills

erudite

pylon

shiner

lice

appetite

icy

skylight

crucify

sideline

icon

eye

baptize

identity

crime

idle

die

concise

twilight

advice

side

briny

dried

right

fire

thrice

china

virus

rye

ride

pyrite

myopic

spy

spicy

shy

time

pliers

pliable

style

bright

cry

It’s the right time to find a gold mine in the sky.

I transcribed five dialogues, but I don’t know why.

The sight of dry land was exciting for IRA.

A life of violent crime is a sign of the times.

Eliza was the pride of the science fair.

Fried pike is sliced for Friday night’s supper.

Ivy vines are tied down behind the shutters.

My guide and I had a fine time on the Nile.

Please recite ironic rhymes of an iambic kind.

Blind justice presided at the indictment.

Dried spice is likely to be appetizing.

 

B. The [au]

Common spellings:

“ou” as in pound, loud, out, mound, pouch

“ow” as in coward, crown, wow, cow, shower

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Hour, out, sound, crown, town

_____

②Additional drills

coward

carouse

crowd

mouse

count

down

powder

confound

crown

douse

round

town

pouch

flounder

cloud

louse

flower

out

amount

abound

shroud

hound

proud

cow

denounce

profound

trowel

mound

about

bow

ounce

dowel

foul

towel

mountain

south

shower

pounce

doubt

oust

The loudest hound in town wowed at the mouse.

The lout proudly scowled at those in the household.

The coward found a trowel and plowed into the mound.

I doubt that the louse will pound down the flowers.

The crowd loudly prowled the streets of the town.

The cow was doused by a shower out of the cloud.

I found that I had gained about a pound.

He counted the hours and vowed to get out of the house.

The sow, the mouse and the cow sounded a rousing song.

Wild flowers abound in out-of-the-way mountains.

 

C. The [ɔi]

Common Spellings:

“oy” as in foyer, Joyce, oyster

“oi” as in spoil, void, noise

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Oyster, oil, soil, moisture, annoyed, joyful, soybean

_____

②Additional drills

foyer

despoil

moisture

ointment

ploy

cloister

oyster

joy

rejoice

buoyancy

hoist

coin

troy

choice

foible

broil

annoy

soybean

royal

toil

soy

poise

avoid

alloyed

loyal

goiter

point

noise

loin

oily

devoid

anoint

doily

poignant

soil

oil

asteroid

steroid

The boy joined in the noise.

Loyal Lloyd anointed the royal head with oil. (忠诚的劳埃德把皇室的头像抹得油亮。)

Boyle put soy sauce on the boiled oysters.

He coiled around the moist cloister pillars.

He toiled to hoist the soybeans from the soil.

The boisterous boy oiled the noisy toy.

He foiled the exploits of those who were loitering.

Ointment is the best choice for your aching joints.

Joyce’s poignant remark annoyed Roy’s foy(临别赠品).

The noisy boy lost his voice while rejoicing.

The royalty exploited their loyal subjects.

D. Review these three diphthongs by mixing up in flowing sentence.

I get around the town quite well.

The boy can’t find his loud toy.

He was annoyed by the sounds of the night.

The sign he painted was moist after the awful rain shower

2. Single Vowels

__________

 

A. The [ʌ]

Common spelling:

“u” as in under, stubborn, hut, us

“o” as in Mother, love, come

Occasional spellings:

“ou” as in southern

“oo” as in blood

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Under, mother, love, hunt, such

Run up to your brother’s hunting lodge.

The dove flew up above the clouds.

His mother cooked supper, but nothing could comfort her Son.

_____

②Additional drills

stubborn

exult

hunter

ulster

rush

nun

stucco

deluxe

trouble

cover

hush

hut

struggle

discuss

wonder

alone

hull

cut

study

brush

lunch

crush

some

come

bus

stump

brunt

upper

chuck

bunk

us

rummage

abduct

unused

slumber

club

glutton

us

slush

until

This stuntman stumbles and tumbles in the mud.

A mother’s love is above that of another

Some suds from the supper dishes were in a dull puddle.

The puppy covered up the other couple’s lunch.

The blood under the bud vase was trouble for Gus.

The drunk number something into his cup.

(我觉得这个句子语法有问题,number作为动词,应该有时态变化,可就算是numbered,那个醉汉到底做了一个什么动作,编号?酒杯?,恳请同学教教我。)

At an upper crust brunch one must wear gloves.

The drunk mumbled something into his cup.

Southern hunters used clubs and lived in huts.

The glutton lunged for the crumbs of the crusty buns.

 

B. the short [æ]

Common Spellings:

This vowel is almost always spelled with the letter “a” as in hand, at, back, fabric.

发[æ]音的字母几乎都是a

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

sad, mad, cat, grass, bat, track, man, dance

I had to have a match after the candle went out.

It’s natural for jack to bat one-handed.

Stan and Joanne are standing in the back of the bank.

after, grant, France, example, draft, craft, command

大卫说,美音里边是念[‘æftə]的,YouDao也有两个不同的音标。

_____

②Additional drills

after

passage

adding

rammed

man

basket

baggage

halfway

anthill

ask

path

mass

alcove

bashful

accept

pam

tank

soprano

master

disaster

laugh

apples

anthem

ambulance

lad

Alps

shatter

annual

handsome

frank

hand

admiral

sandwich

fabric

bath

math

wax

trap

answer

(注:master、disaster、answer的a在美音里都是发[æ],不发[a:])

The soprano laughed as she shattered the glass.

The passengers and baggage were trapped in the alcove.

Pam made an ample snack of the wax apples.

Lady aster handed the annual to the wax apples.

Ask any bashful man in Alabama and accept his answer.

The huddled masses sang the national anthem.

Let’s have a lamb and ham sandwich.

Sam rammed the flag into the anthill.

During the disaster the master commanded the castle.

The staff had a rash of bad habits.

 

C. The Short [ɔ]

Common spelling:

“o” as in rock, oxygen, fox, on, pocket

Occasional spelling:

“a ” as in what, want, watch, calm, swamp, father

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

on, hot, honest, god, lock, positive, occupy

Please respond honestly and confidently.

I haven’t gotten any knowledge about the new contest.

The rocks and the logs are on roof of the cottage.

He was positive about the honor of god.

What, want, watch, wash, father, calm, swamp

My father wanted to go to the spa(温泉浴场).

Which clothes do you want to wash tonight?

He walked into the swamp very calmly.

_____

②Additional drills

rock

response

lock

jalopy

opera

honor

golf

jonquil

obstinate

oxygen

locksmith

common

odd

opposite

confidence

almond

on

obvious

obelisk

fox

bog

occupy

monogamy

plot

pocket

knock

gondola

stop

sock

plotted

positive

option

obligate

grotto

constitute

honest

He occupied the gondola of the golf cart.

The rocket short toward the opposite air lock

The obstinate opera singer was preoccupied.

Becket was positive about the honor of god.

Move the fox from the rocks to the bog.

He was confident about giving an obstinate response.

The frog got groggy and hopped away.

Anonymous l letters commonly dishonor Adonis.

Oxygen is commonly found in air pockets.

The rock grotto was obviously on final option.

I’m obligated to respond with fondest acknowledgments.



第12课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-1-4

整理by Graham

 

A. The Hard [əu]

(美音的[əu]与英音的[əu]是有很大的区别的,这个之前见过前者的嘴巴圆些,有点像普通话的“欧”)

Common Spellings:

“o” as in over, ocean, notion, polar, tomato

“o+consonat+e” as in wrote, quote,,smoke

” ow” as in row, bowl, grow

Occasional Spellings:

“ew” an in sew

“oa” as in soak, loaf

“oe” as in woeful

“ough” as in furlough

Go, home, motion,

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Over, ocean, no, grow, echo, phone, nobody

Goal, role, mold, cold

I hope i can go home tomorrow.

She rowed the boat over the ocean.

He wrote home hoping for a big loan.

_____

②Additional drills

romance

notion

phone

grow

loan

lowly

oaken

legato

hope

apropos

grocery

ocean

window

soak

photo

dough

staccato

bold

loaf

tomato

motion

loco

flow

woeful

float

echo

Long ago people slept on the cold earth.

Slowly the ocean rolled toward the row of homes.

The oboe and celled sat alone, echoing tone for tone.

He was bloated after eating a roast and a tomato.

Of all the folks I know, he is the most hopeful.

The rowboat slowly floated in the ocean.

I told Joan that the snow is flown in from Ohio.

Smoke rolled out the open end of the hotel window

Joan wrote to Joe, hoping for romance.

I told the owner of the boat to be bold.

I took the dough out of the bowl to make the loaf.

 

B. The Soft [ɔ:]

Common Spellings:

“al” as in walk all mall

“au” as in sauce applaud laundry cause

“aw” as in awful flan jaw lawn

Occasional Spellings:

“o” as in cloth, off, song, moss

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

all, walk, raw, ought

applaud, taught, naught, nautical, cause, sauce

often, cloth, lost, salt

The tall author paused and walked home.

Leaves fall on the lawn very often.

Paul ate some really awful sauce.

Don’t walk off with such a bad cough.

_____

②Additional drills

applaud

laundry

sought

naught

draw

chalk

flawless

loft

thought

mall

author

bawdy

strong

caught

moth

vault

glossy

hall

jaw

cause

laud

raw

stall

cough

pause

long

lost

The tall author walked often.

The awkward, awful, strong man walked home.

Lost boys often become flawless at reform school.

Horses often cost more than the monthly draw.

The dog fought the moth he had brought home.

He stalked the ball and then vaulted down the hall.

The awful sauce made Paul pause and then walk away.

The cat crawled across the lawn with its hurt paw.

Right or wrong, we applauded the awkward author.

The cloth in the hall smells of moth balls.

You taught me to vault flawlessly without falling.

 

C. Contrasting “Hard [əu]” and “Soft [ɔ:]”

[O]ver {a}ll, cl{o} th is better than g[o]ld.

I s{aw} him w{a}lk h[0]me al[o]ne.

D[o]n’t f{a}ll in the [o]cean while w{a}lking on the b[oa]t.

_____

①Additional drills

[]

{}

[]

{}

Loaf

Loft

Woke

Walk

Stole

Stall

Coat

Caught

Pose

Pause

Choke

chalk



第11课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-1-3

整理by Graham

 

A. The Hard [u:]

Common Spellings:

“oo” as in smooth, spoon, cool

“ew” as in brew, threw, sewer

“u” as in Susan, studio, ruby, truth

Occasional Spellings:

“o+consonant+e” as in move prove

“ui” as in juice “ue” as in blue, due

“o” as in who “ou” as in coupe, toupee

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

smooth, spoon, boot, moon, truth

school, cool, rule, foolish

It’s true that the new school is a gloomy place.

He cleans the studio every Tuesday at noon.

She likes the view of the moon on June nights.

Drink fruit juice when you have the flue.

Judy was very rude to Susan.

_____

②Additional drills

spoon

prunes

brew

roof

smooth

boost

flute

who

sewer

moon

rumor

through

blue

fruit

prove

room

coupon

gloomy

true

shoe

prove

threw

truth

food

plumage

school

rude

boot

troupe

ruby

pool

cool

bloom

juicy

loose

move

I always knew that prunes grew under the blue moon.

The gloomy June moon is moving foolishly.

At two past noon, I heard hooves on the roof.

It’s true that Sue proves school is gloomy.

Give the student a boost with your boot.

Rumor has it that raccoons buy fruit with coupons.

Newman got juiced because Stu threw brew into the soup.

After his review, the pupil developed a loose screw.

Judy was rude to Susan.

The crew brewed the stew for two hours.

 

B. The Soft [u]

Common Spelling:

“oo” as in wood, foot, took

“u” as in bullet, full, bushel, put

Occasional Spellings:

“o” as in wolf, woman

“ou” as in would, could, should

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

could, good, should, wooden, foot, good-bye, wolf, took, look

pull, bull, full, bullet

不要因为有[l]而把[ul]发成[u:l]

H took a look under the car’s hood.

They pulled the wolf out of the woods.

There are good books in the neighborhood library.

The butcher’s steaks looked really good.

Dr. Goodman took a bullet out of the man’s foot.

_____

②Additional drills

wooden

bullet

boulevard

could

hook

careful

bullion

bully

nook

pull

helpful

forsook

butcher

push

bush

pulpit

boogie

booklet

wood

put

ambush

woman

wolf

sugar

brook

bull

wolf

cushion

hood

ludwig

We pulled the wolf from the woods to the boulevard.

The butcher’s hook took out the sooty bully.

Dr. Goodman took the bullet from the rookie’s foot.

Woody stood up wearing cushioned footwear.

I understood there was a good book in the library.

Brooks was hoodwinked from the pulpit by Mr. Cook.

Only tourists put bushels of soot in the brook.

Captain Hook ate a bushel of cookies.

I couldn’t have understood the crook’s motives.

The Pullman conductor took a look at his ticket book.

 

C. Contrasting “Hard [u:]” and “Soft [u]”

(与之前相同,中括号表示硬元音,大括号表示软元音)

We p{u}lled him out of the swimming p[oo]l.

He p{u}t his f{oo}t in the n[ew] b[oo]t.

The w{o}man said g{oo}d-bye to her st[u]dents..

He c{ou}ldn’t pr[o]ve that the n[ew]s was tr[ue].

_____

①Additional drills

[]

{}

[]

{}

wooed

wood

cooed

could

pool

pull

fool

full

who’d

hood

shoed

should

stewed

stood

luke

look

 



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