第20课

December 30, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-1 What Are We Going To Do About The “T”?

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhdxfzz9

 

1. Medial “T” becomes soft “D”

分别有以下三种情况:

_____

 

A. When “T” falls between two vowel sounds and when the syllable before the “T” is stressed, Americans pronounce it as a lightly tapped “D” instead of a “T”.

T出现在两个元音之间,或是T的前一个音节重读,美音习惯将[t]轻轻地发成[d],作者甚至把它称作the almost [d] sound。

①Repeat after Dr. David

The beautiful British writer scattered the letters.

better, sister, greater, hitter

②Additional drills

sitting, sister, later, latest, greater, greatest, automatic, sixty, seventy, eighty,

ninety, button, utmost, latter

 

B. The same thing happens when “T” falls after a vowel and before an “L”. The “D” sound does not explode off the teeth but opens directly into the throat for the “L”.

当T出现在L前面,[dl]这个音要连起来发,不要停顿。

①Repeat after Dr. David

cattle, rattle, battle, bottle, settle

②Additional drills

kettle metal, mottled, fiddle, riddle

 

C. The same thing happens when the “T” falls after an “N” and before a vowel sound.

T夹在元音和N之间。

①Repeat after Dr. David

center, renter, granted

But notice that the “D” created in these words is softer and a bit closer to the teeth than the “Real D” in the words SENDER and RENDER.

这种情况下,[d]要比正常的[d]要快,不做停留。

②Additional drills

winter, Santa, granter, vented, fainted, printed

 

D. A “medial T” will stay an exploded “T” sound when the following syllable (the syllable started by the “T”) is stressed.

重读若在[t]之前的音节,轻轻发[d],如attic;重读在[t]所在的音节,还是发[t],如attach。注意重读符号的位置。

①Repeat after Dr. David

attack [ə’tæk] ,attic [‘ætik]

Italian [i’tæljən], Italy [‘itəli]

Atomic [ə’tɔmik], atom [‘ætəm]

automobile, momenta, attitude, city, etcetera

②Additional drills

retail, retain, auditorium, attempt, predatory, petition

 

2. the Final “T”

_____

 

A. In American speech, the “final T” usually doesn’t explode. The tongue hits the gum ridge (in the position for the “T” and just stays there.

[t]不要爆破发出来,舌头停在牙龈处,做到[t]的尾音不明显。

①Repeat after Dr. David

hit, hat, what, visit, credit, habit, about, boat

hit them, get shoes, bet numbers

读完第一个单词后,作者强调slide the [t] to the next,即为了使[t]不明显。

hardship, cod liver oil, head shrinker (俚.精神病医生)

类似地,连起来发,使尾音[d]不明显。

②Additional drills

bait, wait, gate, feet, feet, greet, eat, sit, fit, permit, goat, coat

head south, bat the ball, hat size, bad situation, start singing

 

B. When final “T” is followed by a word that begins with a vowel sound, it acts like a medial “T” and becomes a soft “D”.

尾音[t]后边接元音开头的单词,也轻轻地发[d]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I don’t get it.

Right away.

Dinner at eight.

Hit it over the fence.

②Additional drills

Get over here

a pot of gold

film at eleven

Please set it down.

That isn’t it.

She’s smart enough.

He sat on the chai

They got away.

 

C. Another exception: when final “T” ends a consonant cluster and follows either an “N” or a voiceless consonant, you do need a very soft release of the “T” sound.

例外:当尾音[t]前面是[n]或清辅音,要发轻轻地发回原来的[t]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

grant, plant, tent, point, count

作者强调it’s not a really powerful explosion,记住Keep this [t] explosion very soft.

insist, cast, shift, lift, act, respect, slept, kept

②Additional drills

hint, tint, sent, paint, punt, runt, haunt, wouldn’t mist,

fist, waist, gift, expect, sipped, last, boast, roast

 

D. Finally, the sounds “K” and “P” act almost the same way as the “T” when in medial position. They don’t explode into the vowel. In fact, they tend to sound more like “G” and “B”.

同样地,[k]和[p]夹在两个元音之间,轻轻地发成各自对应的清辅音[g]和[b]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

soccer, pocket, pickle, ticket, accurate, actual

track it, back off, a pack of gums

supper, happy, capture

a sip of water, a map of Europe, creep around

②Additional drills

back up, a sack of flour, the peak of health

pack it tightly, hop over, sip slowly

a cup of coffee, with his cap on

 



第19课

December 29, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-8 Relaxing After Final Consonants

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/aq7dtatb

 

Dr. David: People from many languages tend to use too much energy on final consonants. This can cause extra puffs of air or even extra vowel sounds to attach to the Ends of words. Pay particular attention to this section if your first language is Italian, Greek, or Korean. There’s also some tendency to explode too hard with some speakers of other East Asian languages.

 

1. Voiceless Final Consonants

①Repeat after Dr. David

safe/a safe place

tooth/tooth decay

ice/ice cream

publish/publish the book

sip/sip the drink

②Additional drills

sit/sit there

sick/the sick child

half/half priced

fifth/fifth generation

promise/promise me

tip/tip that waitress

top/top drawer

rock/rock pile

parish/parish priest

 

2. Voiced Final Consonants

①Repeat after Dr. David

have/have time

jazz/jazz singer

cab/cab driver

side/side street

drag/drag the furniture

②Additional drills

prove/prove that

praise/praise the lord

ebb/ebb tide

road/road work

lag/lag behind

I feel safe when i leave and my relief shows up.

Not having enough love can cause great grief.

This is as good as it gets.

This happened because his rose garden was beautiful.

Stop the cab!

Can the cop nab the criminal?

The baby can’t sleep in that crib.

The hotel let me keep the rose.

Don’t kick the dog.

He was struck on the back by a plastic bag.

The pig picked up a jug of water.

Crack open the keg.

Let the seed sit on the ground.

You need a hat on your head on hot days.

Get outside and walk around a bit.

He had to avoid getting hit in the head.

 



第18课

December 29, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-7 Voiced & Voiceless Consonant Pairs

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/dnhf29eb

 

Dr. David: Many Europeans have trouble pronouncing voiceless consonants at the ends of words. This is particularly true when coming from German, Russian, and other Slavic languages. Some Asian speakers also have difficulty with the voiceless forms particularly those from Vietnam and other parts of Southeast Asia.

 

1. [ʃ] and [ʒ]

①Repeat after Dr. David

beige(adj.米黄色的)/bash

loge/gauche

brush/rouge

visual/vicious

delicious/collision

cashier/casual

②Additional drills

prestige/quiche(n.乳蛋饼)

garage/harsh

I was ashamed that i bashed the cashier in the face.

Stash the cash on the shelf of the garage.

Do i have permission to finish pining on the corsage?

The shark envisioned itself close to the ocean shore.

It’s a shame to delay the occasion.

 

2. [f] and [v]

①Repeat after Dr. David

safe/save

have/half

relief/relieve

grieve/grief

[v]- cave, behave, Steve

I have half of the leaf.

I feel safe when i leave and my relief shows up.

②Additional drills

Love/enough shelves/shelf wave/waif groove/roof grove/loaf leave/leaf

I’d love to live off the land.

Give of yourself when you have money.

I can save myself if i have to.

Not having enough love can cause grief.

 

3. [θ] and [ð]

①Repeat after Dr. David

teeth/teethe

New teeth make a baby teethe.

sooth/soothe

The soothsayer(n.预言家) can soothe away your worries.

bath/bathe

He can bathe in the bath tub.

[θ]-fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh eighth, ninth, tenth

②Additional drills

He bathed for the fourth time.

The dentist can soothe your tooth with clove oil.

The will teethe when he gets his new tooth.

 

4. [p] and [b]

①Repeat after Dr. David

cab/cap

tab/tap

cop/cob

[b]-tribe, crib, cab, crab, hub

Stop the cab!

Can the cop nab the criminal?

The hotel let me keep the robe(n.长袍).

②Additional drills

Slip/crib slept/ebb cap/cab corrupt/hub crape/abe rope/robe curb/burp

The baby can’t sleep in that crib.

Wear a bib and sip this cup of soup.

You can’ t stop that tribe.

 

5. [k] and [g]

①Repeat after Dr. David

sack/sag

mug/muck

hock/hog

bag/back

[g]-pig, brag, drag, big, mug

Crack open the keg!

Don’t kick the dog!

He was struck on the back by a plastic bag.

②Additional drills

peck/peg

lock/log

rag/rack

lag/lack

stack/stag

pig/pick

jock/jog

The keg gorged a crack at the back of the green doghouse.

Greg can kick the ball back over the log.

The big picked up a jug of water.

He has a big chip on his shoulder.

Drag that sack back inside.

 

6. [t] and [d]

①Repeat after Dr. David

seat/seed

sad/sat

height/hide

[d]-bead, bread, said, had

②Additional drills

Bet/bet

rate/raid

fade/fate

feet/feed

grade/great

paid/pate

set/said

Let the seed sit on the ground.

You need a hat on your head on hot days.

Get outside and walk around a bit.

I hit my head a lot when I’m tired.

 



流水账

December 26, 2011 | Filed Under Life | 2 Comments 

得有好久没给自己写日志了。第一次这么晚还把衣服放下去洗,趁着这个时间,静静地打点字吧。下边是赤果果的流水账,慎入。

紫康的电脑出了问题,又是品牌机子的活动分区那些麻烦事,现在等着DiskGenius试着恢复文件,如果失败我真不知如何在不破坏那些文件的情况下把分区排好系统安装好。我是个学艺不精的人,在电脑方面更是如此,加之一直羡煞那些懂得计算机语言的IT精英,心虚的程度可想而知。可偏偏有装机强迫症,大抵是从小便形成的某些怪癖的综合产物。不会装又想装,生活中无处不在矛盾的人和事,必须算上我一个。

明天考银行实务,得早点起来做做练习,好久没睡这么少,明知眼皮变重,打字却飞快,这还真有点说不出的奇怪。今天考了高财和管理,重新领教了出来混迟早都要还的这句话的厉害,平时放着好好的课不听,期末的时候,即使开卷,也不知从哪里抄起,真是惭愧。晚上一边搞电脑,一边硬着头皮把崔文生的论文赶完了,原本想着会松一口气的,可心里头还是如鲠在喉。我很不喜欢这种感觉,每每有新的任务出现,如果旧事不除,新的事就好像突然困难了好几倍。我曾自己静下心来分析为什么会出现这种情况,说到底就是心烦。这种心烦对于不同的人可能会有不同的负的外部性,可之于我,这个量一定很大。我有一种将这种影响尽量降低的方法,做个任务的列表,按照紧急程度排一边,从最紧急的开始,一个一个来,写在自己记账的本子上,每完成一个便用不同颜色的笔在上边狠狠地把它划掉。而且划过的东西要留着,有时候翻着看,还是挺有成就感的。

今天考了两科,划了两科。明天再划一科,在这样的一种过程中,总能体会到心中对期末结束那一刻的期盼。虽然在真的到了那一刻的时候,那份期盼远没带来想象中的那种兴奋。可起码心中缓缓的舒了一口气,我想这就足够了吧。下午在管理快要交卷的时候,我突然觉得昨晚在自修室想起考完试一定要去贝岗吃什么喝什么一下子已经变得不重要了。高中的时候考完阶段考,一般都是每周六下午,我都是不紧不慢最后一个离开教室,最后一个去做巴士回家。在考前老是跟自己说,静下心来想想自己最近的一些事,没有别人打扰的;或是什么都不想,就是一个人。或许我便是在那些时刻,有意或者无意见,养成了间歇性的孤僻吧。表面有时给人的感觉嘻嘻哈哈,有时却也让人觉得冷漠的很。正应了Charlene之前短信里的那句话,“一直觉得其实你的外表和内心有一段差距,不知道这段差距到底有多大……”

说到Charlene,真心替她高兴,拿到了UCL的offer,等着去心中向往的地方开辟属于自己的新天地。其实这些都是她应该拥有的,在她身上天道酬勤四个字得到了最好的诠释。机会总是留给有准备的人,她付出了,收获了,每个人都为她感到高兴,包括她自己。这不正是一个再好不过的结局么。Charlene不仅是我大学少有的好朋友,还是我的好榜样,我得向她学习。

前几天是冬至,我没有去吃汤圆,确切的说,我要求自己不要去吃。那天我给自己设立一个奇怪的理论,吃汤圆是团圆的象征,自己现在什么都是一个人,吃了它是不应景,我们不能干大煞风景的事。可那天晚上回到宿舍,伟华同志买了一包海霸王煮了一锅,芝麻馅香喷喷。我立马推翻之前设立的东西,安慰自己,其实我身边还有好多朋友的,不要胡乱给自己下结论,而且是略带贬损的结论。我还给菁师姐发了短信,她说她在开吃。真好,我苦逼地在自修室里叫她多吃点,心里想着早知道不发了,别人过得多好,少去烦人。

几个小时前是圣诞。西方的节日我是一向不怎么感冒的,原因仅仅是为了当别人问起原因的时候,我可以牵强的说自己是个热爱祖国热爱传统不崇洋媚外的好男人。圣诞呀平安夜呀诸如此类的,如果有喜欢的人陪着过也是挺好的,如自己的至亲,又如互相喜欢的人。这样说来,其实就跟日子没什么关系了,那些只是可有可无的噱头,若真的要靠这些东西才能把人聚拢身边,也未必是件好事。说来说去,还是人重要。

明天去校门诊开点药,有点口腔溃疡的症状了现在,年轻力胜的时候身体可不要出什么毛病,要是连这点资本都没有,而且是自己弄没的,那很可悲的。

关电脑收衣服了,主任在打鼾,Nick还没睡下,键盘啪啪吵着真不好。希望每个人都有充满信心与希望的明天,特别是自己。



第17课

December 23, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-6 the Nasal Consonants

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhdx3f7u

 

1. the [ m ]

Spelling:

“m” or “mm” as in man camp hamper hammer

①Repeat after Dr. David

mother, move, motion, tomorrow, Mary

(Don’t push your lip too much or press them together with too much force.

发[m]不要强抿着嘴。)

My mother hopes I’ll marry in the month of May.

Many moons ago a man made a map of Minnesota.

②Additional drills

Meet, mitten, Mexico, map, moose, moss, mop, mother, mail, most, mile,

Mouse, moist, mere, moors, marble, ham, temper, empty, important, simple,

Jim, slim, game, home, immense, imitate, ember, consumer, coming, summer,

Swarming, calm, some, team

My mother was emotional when she came home from Maine.

Mike mixed cream and mint into my mild emulsion

Crime-mongers claim that criminals can’t reform.

Make hammering noises sometime after early morning.

In most of the time his slam-dunk motion is monotonous.

 

2. the [n]

Dr. David: The next two sounds — [n] and [ŋ]–cause the most Difficulty for East Asian language speakers. This is particularly true for Chinese and Southeast Asian languages.

So pay particular attention to these two sounds, and the drills which contrast them. You also find speakers of German, Yiddish, Russian, and other Slavic languages will put extra “k” at the end of the “ng” consonant.

Spellings :

“n” or “nn” as in Nancy, name, man

“kn” as in knee, knit

“pn” as in pneumonia, pneumatic

For the [n], your tongue goes right up behind the top teeth, use the side of your tongue against the side of your teeth.

赖世雄老师的美音指南是这样描述的:双唇微张,舌尖上扬轻轻抵住上齿龈,振动声带,气息由鼻腔出来。

①Repeat after Dr. David

name, neighbor, no, narrow, Nancy, noble

Ann, sand, sin, brain, rain, ben, soon

Don’t keep your tongue back, keep it forwards.

②Additional drills

knee, nip, nebula, napkin, noon, neutral, knob, number, nail, notice,

nice, now, near, nautical, number, nail, notice, nice, now, near, nautical,

number, nail, notice, nice, north, enough, interest, enter, antics, soonest,

Tawny, tainted, toner, downy, teen, grin, pen, pain, pun, spoon, spawn

You never know when to stop the nonsense.

I’m not annoyed at Noah for negotiation the annuity.

He’s interested in taking the tainted products away.

Sit inside the pavilion instead of in the sun.

Is anyone interested in annotating the notebook?

Ned announced which train was arriving next.

 

3. the [ŋ]

Spellings:

“ng” as in sang, rang, crying

“n(k)” as in rank, sank

Instead of bringing your tongue forwards and up, bring it back and up. Let the sound come out in your nose with no explosion.

舌头的后部上扬,抵住上颚,气体从鼻腔出来。

_____

 

A. followed “g”

①Repeat after Dr. David

reading, writing, jumping, dancing

rang, fang, tang, sing

Don’t put hard explosion in [g], let the sound without it.

②Additional drills

running, arguing, yelling, scraping, cutting, bring, ring, finger,

Linger, gang, hang, clang, mangle, pang, sting

 

B. followed by “k”

①Repeat after Dr. David

sank, rank, frank, sink, drink, tank

②Additional drills

bank, canker, dank, hanker, clank, plank, swank, vanquish(v.征服)

Ran/rang, fan/fang, tan/tang, sin/sing

Sank, rank, frank, sink, drink, rank, tank

 

C. Contrast

①Repeat after Dr. David

ran/rang/rank

tan/tang/tank

sin/sing/sink

Don’t sing songs about sin.

He ran over and ranked the gong.

I plan to bring Frank a rowing machine.

He’s walking along the sand and getting a tan.

②Additional drills

Sing songs about running and laughing at the rink.

I like things which bring admiring fans to the brink of tears.

Exercising his swimming and diving style was a passing hobby.

He’s coming around here every morning and waking up the sleeping Children.

 



第16课

December 21, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-5 New Consonants, New Problems

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clq903ph

 

1. The “S”

_____

 

A. Initial [ s ]

Dr. David: Speakers from the following languages have the strongest tendencies to put an extra vowel sound before the initial “S” — Spanish, Korean, & Chinese and Southeast Languages.

Don’t put a vowel before it, just no voice.

不要在[s]前边加上元音,只需轻轻发出“丝”,记得不要有声音。

Spellings:

“s” as in snake clocks

“c” as in center concern

①Repeat after Dr. David

save, some, several, science, somewhere, celebrate,

soggy, state, station, student, start, stomach, stop, stubborn

Something special happened this summer.

My sister is still sitting by my side.

The students stayed away from the stove.

The speaker started to scream about the station.

②Additional drills

seal, sip, set, sat, socks, sane, sociology, seem, seep, sill, separate,

everal, century, sang, star stand, stove, steel, stenography, stereo, safest, sincerely, cinema

 

B. “S” pronounced as “[z]”

①Repeat after Dr. David

as, was, does, those, his, has, is, easy

houses, whose, reason, rise, use, position, resolve

pause, phrase, deposit, transfer, surprise

It was as easy as that.

There is a surprise for you in the house.

Who caused you to transfer those musicians?

②Additional drills

dissolve, cause, praise, phrase, positive,

applause, dissolve, preserve, because, musician

Whose idea was it to build those houses?

It isn’t as good as it was because of the materials they used.

 

2. Consonants behind the “S”

_____

 

A. the [ʃ]

Spelling:

“sh” as in sharp, cash “s” as in sugar, sure

“c” as in ocean

“ss” as in passion

“t” as in diction, action

①Repeat after Dr. David

share, shield, shell, shock, shine

Show me where the shower is.

I’m sure you shouldn’t shoot the shotgun.

The sun is shining on the shore.

Show me what good diction can accomplish

“-tion”, ”-ssion” :

diction, election, action, passion, admission

②Additional drills

shield, shimmer, shell, sham, shoot, shook, shock, shudder, shame, shine, shower,

shore, shark, sheer, ocean, motion, diction, transition, creation,

sensation, quiche, accomplish, finish, diminish, cash

 

B. the [tʃ]

Dr. David: Pay particular attention to this sound if your first language is French. Don’t substitute the “[ʃ]” sound for this one.

二外学法文的同学可能清楚大卫这句话的意思。

Spellings:

“ch” as in chip

“tch” as in pitch

①Repeat after Dr. David

chair, chime, catch, change, charming

The child on the chair hurt his chin.

I need change to buy some chocolate.

The charming children are playing checkers.

②Additional drills

cheap, chip, chamber, chastise, chew, choke, chocolate, Richmond,

exchequer(国库), searching, mischief, lurch, match, attach, much

 

C. contrasting “[tʃ]” and “[ʃ]”

①Repeat after Dr. David

sherry/cherry share/chair show/choke

There’s a chance of rain showers.

The children are at the shore.

I shall change shoes when I get a chance.

The shallow channel was full of sharks.

②Additional drills

chill/shill

harp/char

chip/ship

shop/chop

china/shiny

wish/witch

ash/itch

cash/catch

 

D. the [ʒ]

Same tongue position as [ʃ] but keep the voice going

[ʃ]和[ʒ]是两个对应的清浊辅音,发[ʒ]要振动声带

Spellings:

“s” as in vision

“g” as in prestige

①Repeat after Dr. David

division, explosion, vision, confusion, decision,

loge, corsage, prestige, garage, beige

②Additional drills

envisioned, occasion, confusion, derision

 

3. Confusing the letters “j” & “g”

_____

 

A. the [ d3 ]

Dr. David: French speakers often pronounce this sound as zh, while Spanish speakers often use an h. but, as with so many other sounds, this consonant really should be practiced by everybody.

Spellings:

“g” as in gem, gender

“j” as in James, Jack

“dg” as in judge

①Repeat after Dr. David

Joe, James, john, joke, jury, jeep, gymnasium, jeopardy

Joe was the general riding in the jeep.

Jim waited for the judge to jump in the air.

②Additional drills

gyp, jack, Jewish, jaw, logical, hinges, advantage, engineer, legion, lodge, image, advantage, budge

 

B. the [h]

Dr. David: many languages use a very harsh or throaty h-sound. this is especially true in some dialects of Spanish, as well as Russian, German, and Greek.

The American [h] has to be nice and soft. “Hurry in here, Henry.”

发[h]要温柔。

Spellings :

“h” as in hit

①Repeat after Dr. David

help, house, hospital, holy, Henry

I hear that geometry is just the same as logic.

The judge handed the jury his decision.

②Additional drills

heel, him, help, hale,

hoop, hook, hall, hop, hug, hope, hail

 

C. Contrasting [dʒ] and [h]

jim/him

joe/hope

jill/hill

jeep/heap

jail/hail

Hester/jester

hope/joke

holly/jolly

house/joust

 

D. the [ j ]

Dr. David: Spanish speakers are most likely to substitute a dg sound for the y-glide. Also remember that in many European languages, this sound is spelled with the letter “j.”

Spellings:

“y” as in young, yes, yellow, yoke, yesterday, yard

“u” as in union, university, usual, uranium

“j” as in Johansson, Jespersen (European pronunciation)

①Repeat after Dr. David

young, yes, yellow, yoke, yesterday, yard, union, university, usual, uranium

②Additional drills

yield, yippee, yams, you, yawn, yacht, Yale, yeoman, yikes, years,

As yet, the yellow bird hasn’t yelled its song.

Years ago, young people attended Yale University.

He yawned while eating yams last year.

Don’t you usually get seasick on yacht rides?

Uranium used to yield energy.

 

E. Contrasting [j] and [dʒ]

①Repeat after Dr. David

yellow/jello

yale/jail

young/jungle

yes/jess

Young George joined the New York Yankees.

Yes, Jess is the name of my young son.

Joe yelled at George who was in the jewelry store.

②Additional drills

jewel/Yule

jell/yell

yodel/Joel

year/jeer

yoke/joke

yard/jar

yawn/jaw

union/June

 



第15课

December 20, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-4 Reviewing Difficult Consonants

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhds4g9a

 

1. [r] and [l]

Dr. David: The American-style initial R-Sound should be practiced by speakers of all other first language groups. Of course, R/L confusion usually takes place with speakers of East Asian language -those of Japan, China, Korea, and Southease Aisa. Be particularly careful not to insert the extra vowel sound when the “R” follows other consonants if you are a speaker of Hindi (and other subcontinent languages), Arabic, Farsi(波斯语), and Togo log.

 

A. The [ r ]

Spelling:

“r” as in run, truck, front

Remember, you still make the [r] with the backward move of the tongue or by curling your tongue tip up and back. Just like you did on the R-shaded vowel.

①Repeat after Dr. David

red, rose, Rome, reach, rent, remember

green, fried, crash, brew, break, freight

tree, try, trouble, trick

The tree is growing from the lawn.

I had trouble broiling(烤) the fresh fish.

It’s true that I’m proud of the winter crop.

②Additional drills

repeat

rid

rest

rat

root

rookie

rough

run

rake

roast

rye

round

royal

rear

rural

rotten

roar

tree

free

trip

grid

Fred

tread

true

brew

crook

broad

trust

crop

tropic

grade

thrill

chrome

grown

freight

trial

crowd

proud

trash

crash

Remember the Red River Rovers whenever revisiting Texas.

Real estate agents read listings regularly.

Trucks from the farm ravaged the remaining structures.

Retractors really roll away from your grip.

Red roses represent real royalty there in France.

 

B. The [l]

Spelling:

“I” or “II” as in long, lost, hall

①Repeat after Dr. David

love, loan, election, sell

②Additional drills

leap

lick

let

latch

loop

look

lost

lot

luck

element

elaborate

illuminate

Alabama

political

peel

pill

spell

gal

pool

pull

toll

tail

girl

Listen, Larry, we’d like to level with you about your lawn.

Until eleven it’s less likely to happen.

Spelling takes a toll on the girl’s listening abilities.

The lesson learned is clearly about loving your daily labor.

 

C. Contrasting [r] and [l]

①Repeat after Dr. David

The tongue move back for the [r] and forward for the [l].

The long river looks really lovely.

Lucy was real lucky.

The rent is likely to rise later.

A lot of rain leaked through the roof.

②Additional drills

Element/error

Load/road

Wrong/long

Illness/irregular

Rug/lug

Rust/lust

Regulate/legislate

Roast/close

Royal/loyal

 

2.[v]and [w]

Dr. David: Pay particular attention to the V and W formations and contrasts if your first language is GERMAN, RUSSIAN, other SLAVIC languages, as well as Finnish, Hungarian, Norwegian, SWEDISH, and DANISH, FARSI, HINDI and other languages of the subcontinent.

__________

 

A. The [v]

Spellings:

“v” as in very, have

“f” as in of

①Repeat after Dr. David

very, every, vote, have, voice, save

②Additional drills

veal

visit

voodoo

Vaughn

vacate

vote

vibrate

void

veer

vary

vat

fever

harvest

avoid

save

grieve

relieve

love

shelves

wave

groove

grove

leave

 

B. The [ w ]

Common Spellings:

“w” as in will, work, west

“u+another vowel” as in quick, square

Occasional Spelling:

“wh” as in which, when, whether

Dr. David: There are many parts of the United States where the [w] sound is pronounced with a slight, voiceless air puff before the lip glide when the word contains the “wh” spelling.

①Repeat after Dr. David

will, want, worry, west, watch, was, Wednesday

②Additional drills

We

Will

West

Wax

Wooed

Walk

Wok

Woke

Wake

Wow

War

Were

West

Want

Which

Want

Whale

When

White

whip

 

C. Contrasting [v] and [w]

①Repeat after Dr. David

Victor was very worried.

I want to vote next Wednesday.

Everyone was visiting the west coast.

I never worked very hard on Wednesday evenings.

②Additional drills

West/vest

Worse/verse

Went/vent

Velma/well

 

D. Contrasting [r], [v] and [w]

①Repeat after Dr. David

[r]

[w]

[v]

Rest

West

vest

Rain

Wayne

Vain

Real

Wheel

Veal

Rail

Whale

vale

②Additional drills

rill

will

villain

Rome

won’t

vote

rye

why

violent

round

wound

vow

 

3. [b] and [v]

__________

 

A. The [b ]

Dr. David: Spanish speakers must pay closest attention to the contrast between the American “B” and “V” consonants.]

Spellings:

“b” or “bb” as in bear, cab, cabbage

①Repeat after Dr. David

berry, boat, bank, about, borrow, boat, baseball

②Additional drills

beet

big

beg

bag

boot

book

bought

bottom

but

bail

boat

bite

bout

boy

boar

beer

abe

robe

boob

hub

bribe

ebb

verb

cable

cribbage

cubic

cobble

cab

 

B. Contrasting [b] and [v]

①Repeat after Dr. David

The boat is very big.

Can the boy visit his brother victor?

I have to borrow five bank notes.

I have better vision from the back row.

②Additional drills

Very/berry

Verb/bird

Bid/video

Vote/boat

Veil/bail

Bill/villain

Ben/venerable

Average/about

 



第14课

December 19, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-3 R-Shaded Vowels

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/e6kwdvn4

 

Dr. David: Many language groups such as Spanish, Italian, Portuguese(European), and Russian roll or trill the R-sounds with the front of the tongue. Others, such as French, Hebrew, German, and Portuguese(Brazil) produce a throaty R-Shading, or, in the case of Japanese, Chinese and other East Asian speakers, move it toward the sound of the L. American-style R-Shadings (as well as initial R-Sounds) must be practiced by speaker from all first language groups.

R是尾音,像阴影一样跟着,所以叫R-Shaded。

__________

 

1. In American speech, we don’t tap off all the tongue. We don’t use a friction sound in the back of the tongue in the palate.

跟读大卫,练习下面的元音。(tap off 那里应该是听错了,有点解释不通,请同学帮我听听正确的)

 

A. [a:]

car, star, far

(Don’t hold either above or the R-shaded very long. Get into the R fast and get out of it fast. 不要拉长音。)

tar, par, bar, card, start

This type of R-shaded can come after many different vowels in diphthongs. In every case, pull back and up into that R with your rare tongue muscle. Feel the vibration near the opening of your throat.

这个“R阴影”是许多复合元音的尾音。要用舌头的后部肌肉来发,并且感受到咽喉的震动。

B. [ə]

mother, sister, helper, summer,, winter, dancer, player

C. [ə:]

earth, cursed, thirsty, first, German, verb, word, worm

D. [ɔ:]

shore, more, core, exploring, boring, cord

E. [iə]

ear, cheer, appeared, sincere, career, beer

F. [uə]

sure, poor, secure, endure, jury

G.ə]

air, pair, stairs, care, wear, fairly, prepare

H. Mixing Practice

My mother and father went here and there.

My brother Carl had a hard time finding work.

Don’t you care about the poor workers?

Last winter the deer hunter got very scared.

The foreman of the jury was a sincere leader.

Mr. Jones had a beer party every summer for ten years.

 

2. Additional drills of vowels

 

A. [ə]

runner

brother

father

worker

singer

player

sister

later

master

dance

helper

mother

letter

neither

reader

lighter

weaker

nicer

carrier

writer

The burglar and his helper stirred up such a clamor.

My mother, my father, my sister and brother thank you.

The runner staggered over the hill.

Either was a good talker, but she never wrote letters.

This summer went faster and further than last.

B. [ə:]

earth

earnest

first

search

perfect

cursed

worst

hurdle

early

worse

thirst

serve

worm

word

German

curve

verb

Herman was the first to win thirty games.

The German hurdler was the scourge of the early games.

Carl and Marlin formed an artful partnership.

Park the car in Harvard Yard.

The two sergeants are college archery partners.

Are all the place guards qualified marksmen?

Arthur charged out of the arbor unharmed.

C. [ɔ:]

four

door

more

pour

orphan

shore

before

explore

ignore

Orville(人名)

implore

core

nor

sore

fortune

score

shores

Fourteen bored sportsmen adorned the shore.

Forty gory creatures poured through the French doors.

The spores were found in the core of the ornament.

The Concord poured forth exhaust causing sore throats.

More and more support came forth for the orphans’ party.

D. [iə]

jeer

clear

queer

appear

peer

sincere

weird

near

cheer

rear

career

steer

here

spear

deer

beer

tears

Never fear, the wheel to steer is near the gear shift.

The earring fell clear of the nearby pool.

Be sincere my dear; it’s a queer world.

I’m sincere about wanting the deer to appear this year.

A key of beer appeared near the rear window.

E. [uə]

you’re

tour

insure

poor

lure

allure

sure

secure

jury

azure

endure

cure

moor

velour

contour

You’re sure you can endure the long tour?

Poor hunters offer no allure to sure-shots.

Insurance is a poor risk on guided tours.

The cure for polio makes Salk’s name endure.

I’m secure that Mr. Moore will endure.

F.ə]

hair

barely

dare

everywhere

lair

pear

fair

careful

prepare

scare

rare

air

there

stairs

care

wear

impair

blare

repair

aware

An air of excitement rarely blares down the stairs.

Where did the polar bear go?

Pay your fare, then tell the driver where to go.

The flu scare was hard to bear.

Where can I get my hair cut very carefully?



第13课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-2 More Diphthongs and Vowels

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/bhd3z2cr

(第二课的内容是讲三个复合元音和三个单元音,形式与之前2-1的一样,只是篇幅小了很多,所以这一课我就不再拆分出2-2-1之类的了。录音比较短,不过仍有跟读、独自和对比练习。)

 1. Diphthong

__________

 

A. The Long [ai]

Common spelling:

“i+consonant+e” as in life, advice

“y” as in pylon(高压电线塔), shy, dry

“i” as in virus, crisis, China

Occasional spellings:

“igh” as in high, fight

“ai” as in aisle(通道)

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

I’m, fine, arrive, climb, trial

_____

②Additional drills

erudite

pylon

shiner

lice

appetite

icy

skylight

crucify

sideline

icon

eye

baptize

identity

crime

idle

die

concise

twilight

advice

side

briny

dried

right

fire

thrice

china

virus

rye

ride

pyrite

myopic

spy

spicy

shy

time

pliers

pliable

style

bright

cry

It’s the right time to find a gold mine in the sky.

I transcribed five dialogues, but I don’t know why.

The sight of dry land was exciting for IRA.

A life of violent crime is a sign of the times.

Eliza was the pride of the science fair.

Fried pike is sliced for Friday night’s supper.

Ivy vines are tied down behind the shutters.

My guide and I had a fine time on the Nile.

Please recite ironic rhymes of an iambic kind.

Blind justice presided at the indictment.

Dried spice is likely to be appetizing.

 

B. The [au]

Common spellings:

“ou” as in pound, loud, out, mound, pouch

“ow” as in coward, crown, wow, cow, shower

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Hour, out, sound, crown, town

_____

②Additional drills

coward

carouse

crowd

mouse

count

down

powder

confound

crown

douse

round

town

pouch

flounder

cloud

louse

flower

out

amount

abound

shroud

hound

proud

cow

denounce

profound

trowel

mound

about

bow

ounce

dowel

foul

towel

mountain

south

shower

pounce

doubt

oust

The loudest hound in town wowed at the mouse.

The lout proudly scowled at those in the household.

The coward found a trowel and plowed into the mound.

I doubt that the louse will pound down the flowers.

The crowd loudly prowled the streets of the town.

The cow was doused by a shower out of the cloud.

I found that I had gained about a pound.

He counted the hours and vowed to get out of the house.

The sow, the mouse and the cow sounded a rousing song.

Wild flowers abound in out-of-the-way mountains.

 

C. The [ɔi]

Common Spellings:

“oy” as in foyer, Joyce, oyster

“oi” as in spoil, void, noise

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Oyster, oil, soil, moisture, annoyed, joyful, soybean

_____

②Additional drills

foyer

despoil

moisture

ointment

ploy

cloister

oyster

joy

rejoice

buoyancy

hoist

coin

troy

choice

foible

broil

annoy

soybean

royal

toil

soy

poise

avoid

alloyed

loyal

goiter

point

noise

loin

oily

devoid

anoint

doily

poignant

soil

oil

asteroid

steroid

The boy joined in the noise.

Loyal Lloyd anointed the royal head with oil. (忠诚的劳埃德把皇室的头像抹得油亮。)

Boyle put soy sauce on the boiled oysters.

He coiled around the moist cloister pillars.

He toiled to hoist the soybeans from the soil.

The boisterous boy oiled the noisy toy.

He foiled the exploits of those who were loitering.

Ointment is the best choice for your aching joints.

Joyce’s poignant remark annoyed Roy’s foy(临别赠品).

The noisy boy lost his voice while rejoicing.

The royalty exploited their loyal subjects.

D. Review these three diphthongs by mixing up in flowing sentence.

I get around the town quite well.

The boy can’t find his loud toy.

He was annoyed by the sounds of the night.

The sign he painted was moist after the awful rain shower

2. Single Vowels

__________

 

A. The [ʌ]

Common spelling:

“u” as in under, stubborn, hut, us

“o” as in Mother, love, come

Occasional spellings:

“ou” as in southern

“oo” as in blood

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Under, mother, love, hunt, such

Run up to your brother’s hunting lodge.

The dove flew up above the clouds.

His mother cooked supper, but nothing could comfort her Son.

_____

②Additional drills

stubborn

exult

hunter

ulster

rush

nun

stucco

deluxe

trouble

cover

hush

hut

struggle

discuss

wonder

alone

hull

cut

study

brush

lunch

crush

some

come

bus

stump

brunt

upper

chuck

bunk

us

rummage

abduct

unused

slumber

club

glutton

us

slush

until

This stuntman stumbles and tumbles in the mud.

A mother’s love is above that of another

Some suds from the supper dishes were in a dull puddle.

The puppy covered up the other couple’s lunch.

The blood under the bud vase was trouble for Gus.

The drunk number something into his cup.

(我觉得这个句子语法有问题,number作为动词,应该有时态变化,可就算是numbered,那个醉汉到底做了一个什么动作,编号?酒杯?,恳请同学教教我。)

At an upper crust brunch one must wear gloves.

The drunk mumbled something into his cup.

Southern hunters used clubs and lived in huts.

The glutton lunged for the crumbs of the crusty buns.

 

B. the short [æ]

Common Spellings:

This vowel is almost always spelled with the letter “a” as in hand, at, back, fabric.

发[æ]音的字母几乎都是a

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

sad, mad, cat, grass, bat, track, man, dance

I had to have a match after the candle went out.

It’s natural for jack to bat one-handed.

Stan and Joanne are standing in the back of the bank.

after, grant, France, example, draft, craft, command

大卫说,美音里边是念[‘æftə]的,YouDao也有两个不同的音标。

_____

②Additional drills

after

passage

adding

rammed

man

basket

baggage

halfway

anthill

ask

path

mass

alcove

bashful

accept

pam

tank

soprano

master

disaster

laugh

apples

anthem

ambulance

lad

Alps

shatter

annual

handsome

frank

hand

admiral

sandwich

fabric

bath

math

wax

trap

answer

(注:master、disaster、answer的a在美音里都是发[æ],不发[a:])

The soprano laughed as she shattered the glass.

The passengers and baggage were trapped in the alcove.

Pam made an ample snack of the wax apples.

Lady aster handed the annual to the wax apples.

Ask any bashful man in Alabama and accept his answer.

The huddled masses sang the national anthem.

Let’s have a lamb and ham sandwich.

Sam rammed the flag into the anthill.

During the disaster the master commanded the castle.

The staff had a rash of bad habits.

 

C. The Short [ɔ]

Common spelling:

“o” as in rock, oxygen, fox, on, pocket

Occasional spelling:

“a ” as in what, want, watch, calm, swamp, father

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

on, hot, honest, god, lock, positive, occupy

Please respond honestly and confidently.

I haven’t gotten any knowledge about the new contest.

The rocks and the logs are on roof of the cottage.

He was positive about the honor of god.

What, want, watch, wash, father, calm, swamp

My father wanted to go to the spa(温泉浴场).

Which clothes do you want to wash tonight?

He walked into the swamp very calmly.

_____

②Additional drills

rock

response

lock

jalopy

opera

honor

golf

jonquil

obstinate

oxygen

locksmith

common

odd

opposite

confidence

almond

on

obvious

obelisk

fox

bog

occupy

monogamy

plot

pocket

knock

gondola

stop

sock

plotted

positive

option

obligate

grotto

constitute

honest

He occupied the gondola of the golf cart.

The rocket short toward the opposite air lock

The obstinate opera singer was preoccupied.

Becket was positive about the honor of god.

Move the fox from the rocks to the bog.

He was confident about giving an obstinate response.

The frog got groggy and hopped away.

Anonymous l letters commonly dishonor Adonis.

Oxygen is commonly found in air pockets.

The rock grotto was obviously on final option.

I’m obligated to respond with fondest acknowledgments.



第12课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-1-4

整理by Graham

 

A. The Hard [əu]

(美音的[əu]与英音的[əu]是有很大的区别的,这个之前见过前者的嘴巴圆些,有点像普通话的“欧”)

Common Spellings:

“o” as in over, ocean, notion, polar, tomato

“o+consonat+e” as in wrote, quote,,smoke

” ow” as in row, bowl, grow

Occasional Spellings:

“ew” an in sew

“oa” as in soak, loaf

“oe” as in woeful

“ough” as in furlough

Go, home, motion,

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

Over, ocean, no, grow, echo, phone, nobody

Goal, role, mold, cold

I hope i can go home tomorrow.

She rowed the boat over the ocean.

He wrote home hoping for a big loan.

_____

②Additional drills

romance

notion

phone

grow

loan

lowly

oaken

legato

hope

apropos

grocery

ocean

window

soak

photo

dough

staccato

bold

loaf

tomato

motion

loco

flow

woeful

float

echo

Long ago people slept on the cold earth.

Slowly the ocean rolled toward the row of homes.

The oboe and celled sat alone, echoing tone for tone.

He was bloated after eating a roast and a tomato.

Of all the folks I know, he is the most hopeful.

The rowboat slowly floated in the ocean.

I told Joan that the snow is flown in from Ohio.

Smoke rolled out the open end of the hotel window

Joan wrote to Joe, hoping for romance.

I told the owner of the boat to be bold.

I took the dough out of the bowl to make the loaf.

 

B. The Soft [ɔ:]

Common Spellings:

“al” as in walk all mall

“au” as in sauce applaud laundry cause

“aw” as in awful flan jaw lawn

Occasional Spellings:

“o” as in cloth, off, song, moss

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

all, walk, raw, ought

applaud, taught, naught, nautical, cause, sauce

often, cloth, lost, salt

The tall author paused and walked home.

Leaves fall on the lawn very often.

Paul ate some really awful sauce.

Don’t walk off with such a bad cough.

_____

②Additional drills

applaud

laundry

sought

naught

draw

chalk

flawless

loft

thought

mall

author

bawdy

strong

caught

moth

vault

glossy

hall

jaw

cause

laud

raw

stall

cough

pause

long

lost

The tall author walked often.

The awkward, awful, strong man walked home.

Lost boys often become flawless at reform school.

Horses often cost more than the monthly draw.

The dog fought the moth he had brought home.

He stalked the ball and then vaulted down the hall.

The awful sauce made Paul pause and then walk away.

The cat crawled across the lawn with its hurt paw.

Right or wrong, we applauded the awkward author.

The cloth in the hall smells of moth balls.

You taught me to vault flawlessly without falling.

 

C. Contrasting “Hard [əu]” and “Soft [ɔ:]”

[O]ver {a}ll, cl{o} th is better than g[o]ld.

I s{aw} him w{a}lk h[0]me al[o]ne.

D[o]n’t f{a}ll in the [o]cean while w{a}lking on the b[oa]t.

_____

①Additional drills

[]

{}

[]

{}

Loaf

Loft

Woke

Walk

Stole

Stall

Coat

Caught

Pose

Pause

Choke

chalk



第11课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-1-3

整理by Graham

 

A. The Hard [u:]

Common Spellings:

“oo” as in smooth, spoon, cool

“ew” as in brew, threw, sewer

“u” as in Susan, studio, ruby, truth

Occasional Spellings:

“o+consonant+e” as in move prove

“ui” as in juice “ue” as in blue, due

“o” as in who “ou” as in coupe, toupee

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

smooth, spoon, boot, moon, truth

school, cool, rule, foolish

It’s true that the new school is a gloomy place.

He cleans the studio every Tuesday at noon.

She likes the view of the moon on June nights.

Drink fruit juice when you have the flue.

Judy was very rude to Susan.

_____

②Additional drills

spoon

prunes

brew

roof

smooth

boost

flute

who

sewer

moon

rumor

through

blue

fruit

prove

room

coupon

gloomy

true

shoe

prove

threw

truth

food

plumage

school

rude

boot

troupe

ruby

pool

cool

bloom

juicy

loose

move

I always knew that prunes grew under the blue moon.

The gloomy June moon is moving foolishly.

At two past noon, I heard hooves on the roof.

It’s true that Sue proves school is gloomy.

Give the student a boost with your boot.

Rumor has it that raccoons buy fruit with coupons.

Newman got juiced because Stu threw brew into the soup.

After his review, the pupil developed a loose screw.

Judy was rude to Susan.

The crew brewed the stew for two hours.

 

B. The Soft [u]

Common Spelling:

“oo” as in wood, foot, took

“u” as in bullet, full, bushel, put

Occasional Spellings:

“o” as in wolf, woman

“ou” as in would, could, should

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

could, good, should, wooden, foot, good-bye, wolf, took, look

pull, bull, full, bullet

不要因为有[l]而把[ul]发成[u:l]

H took a look under the car’s hood.

They pulled the wolf out of the woods.

There are good books in the neighborhood library.

The butcher’s steaks looked really good.

Dr. Goodman took a bullet out of the man’s foot.

_____

②Additional drills

wooden

bullet

boulevard

could

hook

careful

bullion

bully

nook

pull

helpful

forsook

butcher

push

bush

pulpit

boogie

booklet

wood

put

ambush

woman

wolf

sugar

brook

bull

wolf

cushion

hood

ludwig

We pulled the wolf from the woods to the boulevard.

The butcher’s hook took out the sooty bully.

Dr. Goodman took the bullet from the rookie’s foot.

Woody stood up wearing cushioned footwear.

I understood there was a good book in the library.

Brooks was hoodwinked from the pulpit by Mr. Cook.

Only tourists put bushels of soot in the brook.

Captain Hook ate a bushel of cookies.

I couldn’t have understood the crook’s motives.

The Pullman conductor took a look at his ticket book.

 

C. Contrasting “Hard [u:]” and “Soft [u]”

(与之前相同,中括号表示硬元音,大括号表示软元音)

We p{u}lled him out of the swimming p[oo]l.

He p{u}t his f{oo}t in the n[ew] b[oo]t.

The w{o}man said g{oo}d-bye to her st[u]dents..

He c{ou}ldn’t pr[o]ve that the n[ew]s was tr[ue].

_____

①Additional drills

[]

{}

[]

{}

wooed

wood

cooed

could

pool

pull

fool

full

who’d

hood

shoed

should

stewed

stood

luke

look

 



第10课

December 15, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-1-2

整理by Graham

 

A. The Hard [ei]

Common Spellings: (发[ei]常见的字母搭配)

“a+consonant+e” as in take, sage

“ei” as in weigh, neighbor

“ay” as in may, day, way

“ai” as in aim, aid, fail, mail

Occasional Spellings: (不常见的搭配)

“a” as in aviator, April

“ei” as in eight

[Dr David: More than any other vowel in human speech, [ei] is susceptible to upward gliding lilt. This is especially true for speakers of Hungarian, Finnish, Polish, and many of the languages of Africa and the Asian sub-continent. Do not permit this diphthong to slide up in pitch. ]

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

aim, day, say

ale, male, sail

Today’s date is April the eighth.

The freight train traveled away from the station.

Stay away from the trail when it is raining.

_____

②Additional drills

weight

player

neighbor

aviator

frame

ale

chase

face

instigate

ailing

haze

ate

rainfall

maybe

fail

freight

lake

ace

display

wayward

male

jade

ape

fateful

fray

inflame

kate

labor

base

baby

haste

blamed

trail

mail

lace

take

age

dame

jailer

nasal

aim

great

safety

failure

nation

page

fate

mistake

whale

plague

A great April shower came our way today.

They paid the price for delaying the instant replay.

The ailing aviator chased the victory for its own sake.

They blamed the dame with the famous face.

The able often stray in this fateful age.

Make haste; delay may instigate a fray.

Statesmen hasten to awaken the nation these days.

I may portray Dorian gray on the stage in a play.

Nathan felt the weight of the fateful delay in rainfall.

My real estate agent has a gabled house on three acres.

Eight whales sprayed water as they came safely away.

 

B. The Soft [e]

Begin in the starting position and move your tongue slightly a little forward. Your mouth is opened a little more than it was in the first pair and your tongue is a little bit lower down and the vowel happens quickly.

还记得starting position么,在它的基础上靠舌头稍稍前移来发音。赖世雄老师讲到[e]的时候,是这样说的:舌头放平,舌尖轻轻抵住下齿,脸部肌肉放松,振动声带。两个美音专家,讲的有异曲同工之妙。

Common Spellings:

“e” as in twenty, enter, sell

Occasional Spellings:

“ea” as in spread, sweat “ai” as in said

“a” as in any, many “ie” as in friend

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

get, ready, again,

every, enemy, friend, bed, get, ready, ten, sent

sell, well, bell, tell

(still be careful about the [el])

My friend is resting in bed.

Ed sent ten letters to the enemy.

Get the room ready before the deadline.

The senator meant everything he said yesterday.

The general slept in his headquarters.

_____

②Additional drills

twenty

embrace

semester

fence

red

nest

enter

tenth

friend

effort

fresh

deadline

left

leg

render

when

shelf

spread

jet

ebb

crescent

election

credit

well

century

letter

dilemma

intellect

mentor

wreck

stem

federal

mental

net

center

element

western

Ed rented the penthouse at an exorbitant price.

Ten and ten eventually get you twenty.

I meant every word I said in the elementary section.

Ben was a general from several sections of Tennessee.

Don’t lose your temper when I enter the room.

The song was rendered by men who twenty cents.

He was especially edgy after the separation.

I can’t accept this mental dilemma.

My ex-friend wrecked the mended fences.

Jeff’s hot temper tested his self-confidence.

September seventh was a red-letter day.

 

C. Contrasting “Hard [ei]” and “Soft [e]”

(与之前相同,中括号表示硬元音,大括号表示软元音)

[Ei]ght m{e}n can’t g{e}t through the g[a]te.

D{e}nnis is t[a]king a t{e}chnical course.

M{e}l is a m[ai]l arrier.

S[ai]l the boat out w{e}st, and then s{e}ll it.

_____

①Additional drills

[]

{}

[]

{}

laid

tread

trade

hen

tail

sell

sail

melt

waste

shed

shade

wedding

bail

hell

fade

men

 



The Difference

December 14, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

方才在图书馆看到这么一个小段子,出自新东方李笑来老师的新TOEFL21天突破单词本前言里。写的很绕,读起来特别上口。成功与不成功的差别,真是再简单不过的道理。

可简单的东西,往往知易行难。

问问自己,Am I Successful or Unsuccessful?

_____

The difference between successful people and failures is that successful people make a habit of doing things that failures do not like to do. And what are those things? Well, the things that failures don’t like to do are the same things that successful people don’t like to do either. But successful people do them anyway because they realize that these are the prices that they must pay for the success that they desire.

Successful people are more concerned with pleasing results. Failure are more concerned with pleasing methods. Successful people do things that are goal achieving. Unsuccessful people do things that are tension relieving. Successful people do the things that are hard and necessary and important. Unsuccessful people, on the other hand, prefer to do the things that are fun and easy and which give immediate enjoyment.

Remember, everything in life is a test. Every day, every hour, and sometimes every minute, you are taking a test of self-mastery, self-control and self-discipline. The test is to see whether you can make yourself to do the things that are most important and stay with them until they are complete. The test is whether or not you can keep your mind on what you want and where you are going rather than thinking about things you don’t want or problem that you have had in the past.



第9课

December 14, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

2-1-1

整理by Graham

 

A. The Hard [i:]

Common Spellings: (发[i:]常见的字母搭配)

“ee” as in tree, seem, eel

“e+consonant+e” as in concrete, supreme, scene

“ea” as in meat, peas, bean

“y” as in marry, happily, envy

注意:这里的音标虽然是[i],但实际上,只要有两个音节以上的单词,末尾的[i]都要念成[i:],参照赖世雄老师《美音音标发音指南》P9

Occasional Spellings: (不常见的搭配)

“ie” as in yield, pieces

“ei” as in ceiling

“i” as in ski, intrigue, machine

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

each, even, see, key, green, tree

he, she, we, me, be

very, happy, country, softly, quickly

大卫提到other English dialects 可能发[ri],[li],但是美音要发[ri:],[li:],就像刚才前边提到的一样。

eel, meal, seal, deal, appeal, real, wheel

Give the extra movement of your tongue to pronounce [l] and get a nice smooth [i:l],[i:l]这个音连着发,别断开。

The green car went speeding on the freeway.

She was happy to be eating cheese.

He hurt his knee while skiing very rapidly.

Don’t tease me, my money is real.

I’m very sorry you don’t agree with me.

(注:这些大卫有朗读的部分原本,他要求大写字母打,不过我觉得那样比较难阅读,所以还是用常规,至于要私下练习的部分,像往常一样标出,下同。)

_____

②Additional drills

each

see

teach

fleece

key

me

deal

equal

eager

police

agree

feed

easy

unique

meal

tree

cheat

either

ego

ceiling

please

supreme

free

speak

be

needle

freeway

eaves

machine

tea

fee

team

money

three

achieve

scene

keen

squeeze

enough

pieces

yield

beat

meat

stream

esteem

beak

intrigue

need

neat

jubilee

fever

Please cease to creep through the Garden of Eden.

Meat and cheese were served under the tree.

He twisted his knee while skiing fleetly down the peak.

Steve went to pieces because he was green with envy.

The speed demon careened off the freeway.

He teased the eager Marine with sneezing powder.

Meat, peas, and beans each provide protein.

He achieves intrigue by agreeing to speak Japanese.

She cheated me by dealing thirteen threes.

The reason for ceasing to speak was the parrot’s beak.

Jean and the team serenely jumped onto the beam.

 

B. The Soft [i]

Don’t have downward pitch glide or an echo stay.

软元音短促,不要有回声。

Common spellings:

“i” as in it, sit, still, in, sister, visit, infant

Occasional spelling:

“y” as in “symbol” and “typical”

_____

①Repeat after Dr. David

it, is, sister, visit, tip, big, different

in, inside, interest, hint, himself, winter

ill, silk, hill, bill, fill, until, pill

Go inside and sit still.

This winter will be different.

Bill visited his rich sister.

Pick him up on Fifth Avenue.

We lifted the infant out of his crib.

_____

②Additional drills

inside

mill

pick

physical

wind

city

still

cymbals

witty

ill

sister

flip

exhibit

disappear

zipper

income

lift

history

linen

winter

hint

different

mistake

assist

rich

interest

pyramid

brittle

exhibit

pitch

infant

invisible

quiver

big

live

will

trip

lick

crib

visit

tickle

Winter differs incredibly in its impact on individuals.

The inspector charged interest on Wilma’s income tax.

The clinician instantly investigated the infant’s itch.

Sit inside the pavilion instead of in the sun.

The chicken committed itself to the interest of dinner.

I intend to split the pit in the middle of the cherry.

I instantly intended to imply that you were ignorant.

The infant twitched and gripped the crib.

Inspector Smith hinted at mistakes in the investigation.

Jill will tickle her big sister immediately.

Pick him up at the liquor store on Fifth Street.

 

C. Contrasting “Hard [i:]” And “Soft [I]”

Dr. David: I will put hard Brackets [ ] around the hard vowel and soft brackets { } around the soft vowel.

中括号表示[i:],大括号表示[i],认真对待这个Compound Practice。

S{i}t {i}n that s[ea]t by the w{i}ndow.

Sh[e] broke her h[ee]l while climbing the h{i}ll.

The t[ea]m gr{i}nned after s[ee]ing the gr[ee]n f[ie]ld.

_____

①Additional drills

[ ]

{ }

[ ]

{ }

seep

sip

peak

pick

heel

hill

keel

kill

meal

mill

kneel

nil

real

rill

wheel

ill

feel

fill

eel

sill

peel

pill

seal

will

leap

lip

cheap

chip

 



2-1 Separating the Hard and Soft Vowels

December 14, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clqb6sk0 

[Dr. David: Second language English speakers form almost any Language have at least some trouble separating the hard and soft vowels in each of the following pairs. Speakers from Romance Languages have Particular trouble with the soft forms. Speakers from Russian and other Slavic Languages and speakers of Yiddish and Hebrew have more Trouble with the hard forms. But these pairs represent one of the most important pronunciation skills for any second language English speakers.]

 

1. The Differences between the Hard and Soft Sounds in Each of Four Pairs of Vowels. Eight of the English vowels come in pairs, two by two.

2. The hard sound needs more rear-tongue movement and a slight downward pitch glide. You can feel a second Stage or “echo” almost like hearing the hard vowel twice. The soft vowel in each pair is short, stays on one pitch, and has little or no Movement in the back of the tongue.

3. 笔记安排:

2-1分四个section分别介绍[i:]和[i],[ei]和[e],[u:]和[u],[əu]和[ɔ:]。每一小节的流程都是先介绍Hard,接着Soft,最后Compare。由于每一节篇幅较长,而且还有大量没有录音的Additional Drills。所以此处把每一小节变成一篇,即2-1包括这一篇共有5篇。



女孩永远比同年龄的男孩成熟

December 12, 2011 | Filed Under Film | 2 Comments 

上个星期看了一部最近很红的电影,《那些年,我们一起追的女孩》。很青春很温馨,小清新小重口味,柯景腾和沈佳宜之间的点点滴滴总让看的人倍感温暖与回忆。特别是对于我们这些曾经青涩或正在青涩亦或是还没青涩的学生朋友来说,这部电影的许多场景总是很能产生似曾相识的共鸣,让人嘴角微微扬起,若有所思。同名的主题曲《那些年》,旋律很上口,特别是当唱到“回到教室座位前后故意讨你温柔的骂”,我总觉有种莫名的感慨,感慨时间的力量,让人不得不感激过去的美好。

九把刀的电影保留了很多原版小说的元素,个中出现了许多台词总能使我们不经意地点头,内心道是。电影里的对白也充满了台湾本土的风格与特色,那些海峡的另一边才有的独特的语气词,总让人有种身临其境的感受。

“成长,最残酷的部分就是,女孩永远比同年龄的男孩成熟,女孩的成熟,没一个男孩招架得住。”

这句话,突然让我想起初中的时候一件好玩的事。

初中跟小学不一样,男生女生不能做同桌,只能男跟男女和女,很幸运的,我和我同桌的前后都是女生。当时我们前后四桌,男女各半,关系好得不得了,自称“七组”,后来还在一本小学作业簿上通力写了 “七组传”。

有一天,不知是谁出的主意,要求组内每个人带来自己小学的同学录,相互分享。我觉得没什么猫腻,也挺好奇他们小学的时候是什么样子,立马欣喜的答应了。我当时确实没想太多,幼稚嘛,只记得那天下午要上体育课。

中午回家带上同学录,准备打完球跟她们好好交流一下。

体育课上完,我回到二楼教室,发现坐在我前后的那四个女的,正围成在我的座位上讨论着什么,还时不时发出悦耳的笑声。

我走近才发现,原来她们在品尝我的同学录。

“哇,我想看看你们的。”我只说了这么一句话,没有觉察什么不对。

“哦,刚才你的书包掉了,我们帮你捡起来了,同学录不小心也掉在地上了,我们也放回去了。”坐在我前面那女生说。

“谢谢啦,那给我看看你们的同学录吧。”我依旧没察觉什么不对。

“哎,我那本同学录找不到了。”一女说。

“我也是,我再回去找找,找到了一定带来。”二女说。

“下次啦。”三女说。

“下次一定!”四女说。

……

那天下午,我屁颠屁颠地回家,想了一整晚,终于发现——被骗了。顷刻间,我发现我的好多秘密已经不再是秘密。我那本精心设计的珍藏我许多秘密的唯一同学录,就这样在我不在场的情况下,被一群泼妇从天灵盖到脚底蹂躏了一遍。我一回想起她们四个围成一团那副嘴脸,心中阵阵隐隐作痛。

我把每个小学同学,特别是女孩,按照自己的喜欢程度从前到后排列,如果被她们看出这个机关,我该怎么办。

她们实在太可恶了,玩我。

第二天我决定报复。

“昨天同学录里你们有没有看到一封信,好像不见了。”我一脸沮丧。

“什么信,没有啊。”

“很重要么,谁写给你的?”

很明显,她们对于那个我虚构出来的东西比较感兴趣。

“算了吧,可能弄丢了,不过还好没人看过。”我满脸忧郁,心中开满了小花。

哈,这么多年过去了,虽说不符合《那些年》里边那青涩的桥段,可在我看来小时候的有些事情的确是笨的可爱。在我没住宿之前,我总觉得班上的女生都是比我高比我大,身体跟不上,更别说心智了。“女孩成熟论”,我想只要是在校园里,大抵都是成立的,或许限定再严格点,同班同级应该都是这样吧。

如今我已经好多年没见着那四个可爱的女孩了,也一直没联系,不知她们都成熟成什么模样。



国王的演讲

December 11, 2011 | Filed Under Film | Leave a Comment 

The Speech of King George VI

In this grave hour, perhaps the most fateful in our history, I send to every household of my peoples, both at home and overseas, this message, spoken with the same depth of feeling for each one of you, as if I were able to cross your threshold and speak to you myself.

For the second time in the lives of most of us, we are at war. Over and over again we have tried to find a peaceful way out of the differences between ourselves and those who are now our enemies. But it has been in vain. We have been forced into a conflict.

For we are called, to meet the challenge of a principle, which if it were to prevail, would be fatal to any civilized order in the world. Such a principle, stripped of all disguise, is surely the mere primitive doctrine that might is right.

For the sake of all that we ourselves hold dear, it is unthinkable that we should refuse to meet the challenge.

It is to this high purpose that I now call my people at home and my peoples across the seas, who will make our cause their own. I ask them to stand calm and firm, and united in this time of trial.

The task will be hard. There may be dark day ahead, and war can no longer be confined to the battlefield. But we can only do the right as we see the right and reverently commit our cause to god.

If one and all we keep resolutely faithful to it, then with god’s help, we shall prevail.



1-7 Putting It All Together

December 9, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

1-7 Putting It All Together

1. First time: Concentrate on making your points with proper pitch changes.

Mark this first printing of the script with reminders about the places you might Begin jump up and step down units of intonation. Underline the words where the pitch jumps will happen. You might even use different colored pencils to indicate as may different options as you want. Remember, there’s no one correct place to begin intonation units.

 

2. Second time: Concentrate on relaxing the front and moving the tongue in the back of your mouth.

Use this second printing of the passage to mark the vowel sounds you practiced in lesson 5, especially the ones that you have the most trouble producing. Remember to use the quick American glide technique on all of the double vowels. Then try combining the intonation units you practiced on the last page with the correct pronunciations you’re drilling here.

 

3. Third time: Combine these things with the correct pronunciation of the sound that you just study.

Use this third printing of the passage to mark and practice the consonant sounds you learned in lesson 6.

 

4. Finally, attempt to read the passage with a mixture of everything you practiced on the last few pages. In addition, continue reminding yourself to generate speech movement with relaxed lips and with the American style of tongue muscularity.

Monologue: Putting it all together put it all together of 1-7

Hello, my name is David, I’m really happy to see you.

I’ve been wanting to come down here for a long time. I just didn’t get the chance before this. That’s probably because I’ve been Working really hard, and very long hours for a long time. But now that I’m here, I’d like to talk to you about some important things I’ve been doing lately. I’ve been spending a lot of time working on my speech–trying to learn how to use more of an American speech style. I’m using a lot more pitch change now. But I’m not sliding up in pitch. I’m using the American intonation pattern that a guy named stern calls the jump up and step down pattern. It’s also necessary for me to relax the front of my mouth and use the muscles in The back of my tongue more than I used to. I also started working on some difficult pronunciation. I really hope it’s paid off.

Well, what do you think? How do I sound?



1-6 the Most Difficult American Consonants

December 9, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

1-6 the Most Difficult American Consonants

1. the “th” sound

Actually let the tip of your tongue stick out a bit and touch your top teeth, feel the vibration between your tongue and teeth.

thing, athlete, throw, fourth

this, that, the, other, them, they

Here are some sentences mixing up both kinds of “th” sounds.

They did this, that, and the other thing

Thank you for thinking of me.

Don’t throw that at them.

_____

Additional drills of “th”:

these, this, then, that, the, they, gather,

northern, southern, leather, teethe, soothe, lathe, weather

thesis, thistle, thespian, thatch, thunder, thank, thigh

thousand, breathy, monthly, apathy, author, cathode,

wrath, teeth, sooth, eighth, seventh

That thing over there is thoroughly annoying.

The thistle stuck into Throckmorton’s thick thumb.

Forsooth, the ointment will soothe that throbbing pain.

The seething thing was thoroughly annoying.

 

2. the “h” sound

Some of you draw the [h] completely which make it difficult for some native speakers of English to understand. Others make the heavysound on the throat.

Henry Harris came home.

here, have, had

hand, history, happy, inherit

He’s happy that you said hello.

Hold the helpless child’s hand.

My heart feels heavy when I hear you.

_____

Additional drills of “h”:

hold, hang, hail, inhale, inhibit, hoop, home, house, hero,

hen, haphazard(n.偶然), hermit, hill, hamster, Herman, hormone, hamburger

The handsome man inherited a horse ranch.

Hurry over here, Henry.

He inhaled and exhaled very heavily.

Hank inherited a hundred dollars from his history Teacher.

Hold on to the handle and inhale happily.

Homecoming hardly ever happens here anymore.

 

3. the “v” and “w” sounds

On the sound [v], you leave your bottom lip up to the edge of you top front teeth. Don’t touch the teeth with the outside of your lip, instead use the inside edge of your lip, just a little bit down from the top.

very, visit, every, fever, harvest, save

Every time I visit I see a vision.

I love to dive over the rocks.

I have avoided placing average advertisements.

Compare “w” with “v”. You can’t touch the bottom lip to your teeth or touch the two lips together, either.

vest/west

verse/worse

vent/went

we, will, wax, walk, wake

William worked harder on Wednesday.

Wait while I warm up the workroom.

Did he walk in through the window?

I wish Wendy would wear warmer clothes.

_____

Additional drills of “v” and “w”:

veal, visit, vest, voodoo, Vaughn, vacate, vote, vibrate, void,

veer, vary, vat, fever, harvest, avoid, save, grieve, relieve,

love, shelves, wave, groove, grove, leave, have we, will,

west, wax, wooed, wood, walk, work, woke, wake, wow, war,

were, wonder, whale, which, what, when white, wit, worry

When Vick worked on weekends he got very tired.

I love to watch whales, but I avoid waving at them.

She wondered whether to vacate the warm village.

I average five hours of work a day during harvest.

Where did Vivian wander every Wednesday evening?

There’s a village in the woods in western Vermont.

 

4. the “r” and “l” sounds

Avoid trilling your tongue. Avoid getting friction near the back of your tongue. Just pull the middle of your tongue back and up toward the soft palate.

rest, romance, room, repeat, royal, round

Remember the red roses on the ground?

I read a really good romance novel.

The room will be ready for you to rest.

Compare “l” with “r”. The air should actually pass between your tongue and cheeks on both sides.

river/liver

rot/lot

wrong/long

error/element

peer/peel

Let, look, lost, lonely, long, element, seldom

Larry has been late eleven times.

Let me loan you money for the laundry.

Please allow her to look for gold.

_____

Additional drills of “l” and “r”:

repeat, rid, rest, rat, root, rookie, rough, rake, roast,

True, tree, crop, thrill, free, brew, grade, freight, chrome,

Broil, leap, let, latch, look, lost, luck, element,

elaborate, illuminate, Alabama, political, employment,

elementary, seldom, peel, pill, spell, gal, pool, pull, toll, tale, girl, all

Larry would really like to remove the front lawn.

Children are less likely to roam around after eleven.

Richard learned to spell some really hard words.

The red river is lovely as it flow in front of the house.

He reads the real estate listings daily.

Frank lived across the hill from a really lovely farm.



1-5 American Vowel Pronunciations

December 9, 2011 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

1-5 American Vowel Pronunciations

1. The five American diphthongs, or double vowels, are the best examples of why you must continue using everything you’ve already learned when trying to correct your pronunciation.

Each diphthong begins as one vowel sound then glide into a second vowel.

The five diphthongs are [ai:], [au], [ei], [əu], [ɔi].

In order to sound like they’re coming from a native speaker, these sounds must be produced with both downward pitch movement and a lot of muscles work in the rear tongue.

 

2. [ai:]

[ai:m] [ai:l] [ai:v]

mile, night, time, advice, identify

I’m really fine.

It’s a sign of the times.

I tried to find myself.

My guide and I had a fine time.

_____

Additional drills:

high, icy, eye, die, shy, ride, file, cry, aisle, flight, crime,

right, light, bright, while, slice, virus, baptize, advice,

pliable, style, spicy, shine, pine, pile, rhyme

I don’t have time to find him.

Please transcribe all five dialogues.

Life on dry land isn’t very exciting.

My son is the pride of my life.

There were five kinds of dried spiced.

He sliced the fried fish on Friday night.

 

3. [au]

Don’t push the lips forward to get the [u] ending, move your tongue up and let your bottom lip flow gently up and back the up lip.

out, hour, ounce, mouse, shower, about, count, flower

They went out of town.

They crowded around.

He ran around and about the town.

He’s proud of losing about ten pounds.

_____

Additional drills:

Coward, powder, amount, announce, ounce, mountain,

South, abound, profound, allow, round, brown, crowd,

Towel, mouse, down, foul, bound, flower, house, found, confound, how

It was the loudest hound in town.

They found it around the house.

I doubt that flowers can grow in that ground.

The loud crowd prowled around the town.

He counted the hours after she went out.

Wild flowers grow out there in the mountains.

 

4. [ei]

aim, ace, April, eight, came, baby, great, shame, failure

It’s a great day, today.

They sailed away to Spain.

He’s a real estate agent.

It was a great day in April.

_____

Additional drills:

weight, chased, rain, display, take, player, neighbor, maybe,

haste, safety, investigate, freight, trail, jailer, whale,

frame, haze, lake, aggravate, ate sage, pain, ape, lace

Great pain came our way today.

Kate has the most famous face in the nation.

Don’t delay mailing your payment.

My real estate agent found an eight acre lot.

The whales sprayed water while swimming away.

Don’t fail to take a walk by the lake.

 

5. [əu]

Put your tongue in the starting position, pull back slightly before you begin the sound then finish like gliding into the singing relaxed [u].

over, old, open, so, grow, moment, slowly

The boat went over the ocean.

Smoke rolled out of the window.

Joe put the dough into the bowl.

He floated home in the rowboat.

_____

Additional drills:

low, romance, photo, wrote, notion, ghost, grocery,

blown, so, tomato, phone, oaken, moment, motion, don’t,

window, bold, loaf, folds, cone, hope, sew, mole, echo, loan,

old, coal, hotel, fold

The oboe and cello sat alone.

The tone of the echo rolled over the hills.

He ate a roast with a tomato.

I said hello to all the folks i know.

It snowed in Ohio over the holidays.

The owner of the boat rowed home alone.

 

6. [ɔi]

oyster, oil, ointment, voice, toil, appointment

Roy heard a joyful noise.

The boy oiled his toy.

The soybeans were in the soil.

He rejoiced by eating oysters.

_____

Additional drills:

Rejoice, coil, poise, void, spoil, broil, asteroid, appoint,

Avoid, voyeur, moisture, cloister, hoist, soy sauce, choice,

Exploit, enjoy, royalty, poignant, join, oily, loin, coin

The other boys joined in the noise.

His royal head was anointed with oil.

Don’t loiter on noisy city streets.

Boil the fish; then broil it without any oil.

Sometimes royal exploits its loyal subjects.

He appointed Roy to get ointment for his joints.

 

7. Repeat after the tape.

It is a nice day to go around the town.

April tried to find her boy.

A great came from the right side of the door.

She is shy when nice boy are around the house.

I gave away a pound of fry fish yesterday.

 

8. Two unusual vowels which exist in very few languages other than English.

 The first is [ ʌ].

but, hut, under, us, mother, love, son, Monday

The puppy dug under the fence.

The bum stumbled into the lumber yard.

My mother loved my brother very much.

We covered up the other couple’s lunch.

_____

Additional drills:

Stubborn, under, rush, nun, deluxe, trouble, cover, hush,

Struggle, discuss, wonder, study, brush, lunch, come, bus,

Stump brunt, supper, bunk, nothing, mumble, study, unsung

The stuntman stumbled and tumbled into the mud.

The drunk mumbled something under his breath.

Come to lunch with my brother and me.

I wonder if Gus can come up to the hunting lodge

Shut up about the blood stain under the table.

Mother’s club activities take much of her time.

 

8*. The second is [æ].

man, bat, cat, hand, disaster, answer

The man is standing back there.

Last night the cat abandoned the kittens.

I can’t stand your lack of manners.

Ask any bashful man if he can dance.

_____

Additional drills:

after, passage, basket, half, ask, path, castle, trap,

command, as, mass, France, glass, admiral, sandwich,

fabric, bath, laugh, apple, absolute, master, grand, stand,

average, category, and

The passengers were trapped without their baggage.

The glass shattered after Dan tried to stand on it.

He passed out halfway up the path.

He commanded the castle after the captain abandoned it.

I can’t accept that answer from an athletic man.

It’s a bad habit to tap your hand on the wax apples.



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