捋一捋

January 22, 2012 | Filed Under Life | Leave a Comment 

年末,翻开日子本,挑些见得人的日子,捋一捋我的2011。

04/02-六-晴 重新找回写日记这一习惯,用铅笔,写起来比较顺手,况且还有可以反悔的橡皮。

04/15-五-晴 正式染上微博。

04/22-五-晴 生活中对于麻烦痛苦的释怀,不应由另一个新的更大的难以释怀的困难来完成。每个阶段都会有烦心事,但要提醒自己,它总不会是最大的困难。等过些时日回头再看,会发现那其实真的算不上什么。

04/25-一-云 山夫人的笔记本被人一个不小心全部格式化,我的不该。晚上和六爷打球,知道他和Small好上了,恭喜。

05/08-日-阴 母亲真伟大。愿妈妈身体健康,快乐幸福。

05/29-日-晴 和三下乡的队友去小洲村大吃了一餐。

07/14-四-晴 考完期末,大二结束。

07/18-一-雨 在图书馆三楼左手边靠窗正数第七章桌子上看到这样一行字:“即将面临大四,迷惘,不舍的还是图书馆”。

08/01-一-云 坐了一趟有史以来最贵的地铁,10块,到瀚天科技城,证实了自己的英语是有多么的不够格。

16/08-三-晴 回了汕头。

03/09-六-阴 不懂得如何拒绝,说谎成了一直的习惯,以致用新的解释旧的,到头来难免干了违心的事。

04/09-日-晴 去了趟怡嘉酒店,手里揣着张白纸,看了一份又一份闪亮的简历。

15/09-四-云 上完课后到A栋面试业务岗,面试的师姐很亲切,进了接待州长组。

26/09-一-晴 回汕头补牙。

29/09-四-风 给欣欣老师写了封信,用EMS寄的,跟平邮没什么区别。

07/10-五-晴 又是一天。

08/10-六-晴 去琶洲打酱油也就算了,还被遣出坑爹组,接待的人从美国人变成日本人。同行11人,考研考G考T还有高中就雅思7分的。

16/10-六-晴 早上不会再听到“The next station is PaZhou.”。

25/10-二-云 收到P&G暑假实习的拒绝信,躲在宿舍里看霸王别姬,管理会计点了名。

30/10-日-晴 Bin拿到了海普瑞的Offer,明年去深圳,那是个好地方。

06/11-六-阴 都城二楼,雪莲给我讲了好多,要一直记住,感激不尽。

08/11-二-雨 上课的时候,大脑短路双目失明发了条短信,恨不得当场挖个坑把自己埋了。

09/11-三-风 看《失恋33天》,雪莲请的票,WaWa请的饭。

12/11-六-晴 Nike万人跑,见到了几年不见的大奶,认识了弹吉他很棒的Jason。

19/11-日-阴 和Lu去考BEC-H,听力时一边耳机坏了,口语时没看到turnover rate,不懂inspect,其他还顺利。

24/11-四-晴 琶洲600块工资,F091中倒数第一,很自豪。

27/11-日-晴 去轻工考证券从业,考完找了间麦当劳,要吃饱一顿,真不便宜。

30/11-三-晴 板栗,Killer,2栋,和F091的JRs度过11月最后的尾巴。

06/12-二-晴 买下了域名和空间,就是我写的这里,了却心中小小的愿望。

11/12-日-晴 WCG2011世界总决赛,Lyn拿走了WC3的冠军,逆转Sky和Fly。替Sky感到可惜,到手的胜利,转眼成了上天跟人皇开的玩笑。Fly说不拿WCG冠军不退役,如果将来没有WC3项目了,就改打SC2,誓要拿到那个奖杯。

13/12-二-云 去参加一个10年不见的小学同学的毕业典礼,回来跟鱼儿说今天是个很特别的日子,一一一二一三的。或许错过了一些美好的东西,亦或不是呢。

14/12-三-晴 外甥来了,升级为舅舅,母子平安,谢天谢地。

17/12-六-云 第二次考六级,磨刀不误砍柴工。

31/12-四-阴 早上考审计,很怕挂。



欢迎回家

January 10, 2012 | Filed Under Life | Leave a Comment 

亨利回来了,回到了他曾经创造无数辉煌与荣耀的阿森纳。

海布里之王,34岁,蓄着落腮的胡子,脚步不再那么轻盈,不再那么不可战胜。可还是你,还是那标志性的进球。

“枪迷们hold得住吗,怎能不泪流满面啊!关键时刻还是靠亨利大帝来救驾。”此刻我比解说詹俊还要激动。

当看到亨利进球的一幕,以枪手的身份,我想每一个阿森纳球迷,每一个亨利的球迷,心中除了欣喜,还有一份热泪盈眶的感动。

你回来了,无论何时,这里的一切都是你的。

GoalHi上看到好心的网友做了一个视频,亨利,欢迎回家。回想起亨利在海布里的日子,仿佛如昨日般,历历在目,看得人泪流满面。

亨利,欢迎回家,就好像你从未离开。



第26课

January 6, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-7 Using the Intonation & Stress for Communication

整理 by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/aq7dy3j1

 

这是最后一课。Dr. David再次强调两点,跟读或自己练习时,you must feel you are exaggerating and imaging people listening to your talking.

①Repeat after Dr. David

I haven’t been to a baseball game in an eternity.

I’d consider it an honor if you’d come to the game with me.

I hesitated just before making the decision.

The incriminating evidence was overwhelming.

Is it appropriate to wear jeans to the restaurant?

②Additional drills

I’d like to welcome all of you to this meeting.

I’ll begin by introducing myself to you.

My name is David Alan stern, and I’ve been president of this company for the last ten years.

I’ve seen a lot of changes in that time.

Yes, we’ve certainly made a great deal of progress.

But, there is still a lot more to do if we’re going to continue to grow.

Starting next week, we will begin a brand new project.

Although our goals are new, we still need the same dedication and the same hard work you have already shown us.

I hope that the next ten years of progress make the last ten seem small in comparison.

 

__________

Dr. David: Finally, let’s end with the same passage we used in course 1. Follow the instructions on the tape as you try to integrate everything you’ve learned into this final passage. The tape will take you through the passage twice–first, one sentence at a time, second, as a complete speech.

GrahamPractice, practice and practice.

__________

Final drill passage

“I’d like to welcome all of you to this meeting. I’ll begin by introducing myself to you. My name is David Alan stern, and I’ve been president of this company for the last ten years. I’ve seen a lot of changes in that time. Yes, we’ve certainly made a great deal of progress. But, there is still a lot more to do if we’re going to continue to grow. Starting next week, we will begin a brand new project. Although our goals are new, we still need the same dedication and the same hard work you have already shown us. I hope that the next ten years of progress make the last ten seem small in comparison.”

 



第25课

January 5, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-6 Practicing Syllable Stress

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/dnhf017o

 

Dr. David: Although there are no absolute rules in English telling you which syllable to stress, there are some groups of words which have similar stress patterns.

 

1. Nouns

_____

 

A. Regular nouns

①Repeat after Dr. David

table, handle, action, bachelor, dragon, ceiling, carpet

The action began in the second scene.

There wasn’t enough action in the scene.

There wasn’t enough action.

②Additional drills

warehouse, storage, calendar, ocean, animal, picture, fixture

conscience, basket, paper, shoulder, echo, concept, section

 

B. Verb-based nouns

①Repeat after Dr. David

recorder, announcement, computer, graduation

If the verbs inside the nouns has the stress on each first syllable, verb-based noun will still have first syllable stressed.

如果动词本身重读第一个音节,其衍生而来的名词也可能重读第一个音节。

broadcasting, calculate

The announcement came early in the morning.

He made two announcements yesterday.

The headmaster made the announcement.

②Additional drills

election, creation, establishment, variation, construction

 

C. The “ate” verbs/”-ation” nouns

Dr. David: In most cases the stress point for the verbs is two syllables before the last. The stress point for the nouns is usually on the second to the last syllable. However, if one of these nouns has four or more syllables, you will usually have the option of stressing the fourth syllable from the end.

由动词衍生而来的多音节名词形式一般都有两种重读方式,注意跟读录音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

investigate/investigation

confiscate/confiscation

generate/generation

accelerate/acceleration

terminate/termination

speculate/speculation

There are a few cases where the verb form has only two syllables and the noun form has only three. In those cases the words will stress their first and Second syllables respectively.

如果动词双音节,名词三音节,则分别重读其动词的第一,名词的第二音节。

Frustrate/frustration fixate/fixation

②Additional drills

Accelerate/acceleration graduate/graduation

Communicate/communication separate/separation

Moderate/moderation contemplate/contemplation

 

D. The “ate” verb switch

Something else very interesting can happen to verbs that end in the letters “ate.” by softening the hard-a vowel and pronouncing it as a soft-i, the word changes from a verb into a noun or an adjective.

有趣的是,有些以ate结尾的动词,发[eit]是动词,发[it]则可转化成它的名词或形容词。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Moderate, approximate, separate, graduate

②Additional drills

Elaborate, degenerate, associate, moderate

 

E. The “-avle” and “-avility” pairs

There are pairs of adjectives and nouns in which the adjective ends in the sound of the “l” and the noun ends in the letters “ility.” In these pairs the adjective often stresses the first syllable while the noun stresses the second.

形容词以l结尾,名词以结尾的单词,前者重读第一个音节,后者第二个。

①Repeat after Dr. David

able/ability, stable/stability, virile/virility, sterile/sterility

When the work s gets a little longer, the nouns have optional syllable stress.

多音节的名词,如后缀为ibility,一般有两种重读方式。

credible/credibility

affable/affability

knowledgeable/knowledge ability

②Additional drills

pliable/pliability workable/workability

operable/operability salvageable/salvage ability

capable/capability sufferable/suffer ability

 

2. Final R-shaded vowels

_____

 

A. When a verb adds the simple [ə] sound to form a verb-based noun, the new noun keeps the stressed syllable from the original verb. This also happens on some words which actually add the letters “or” to represent the unstressed [ə].

动词加er或or变成名词,只要发[ə]音,依旧重读第一个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

runner, player, helper, sailor, Taylor, actor, savior

Incinerator, educator, commander

②Additional drills

Builder, reactor, dancer, dresser, teacher, soldier, carrier

A*. The same stress rule applies when “er” or “est” are added to the end of an adjective.

加er或est改为比较级或最高级,还是重读第一个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

big/bigger/biggest

heavy/heavier/heaviest

Fast/faster/fastest

②Additional drills

rich/richer/richest

green/greener/greenest

fresh/fresher/freshest

 

B. Final [a:] and [ɔ:] syllables

最后的音节包含这两个元音的单词,重读第二个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

ignore, explore, rapport, support, absorb

apart, discard, alarm, enlarge

②Additional drills

Implore, afford, record, discharge, disarm, embark

Of course, there are times when some of these “ar” or “or” verbs with final-syllable stress can become nouns by shifting stress back to the first syllable.

有时候,这两种单词,重读第一个音节表示其名词,第二则是动词。

consort/consort, resort/retort, import/import,

retard/retard, discard/discard

 

C. R-shaded diphthong endings

复合元音结尾的重读。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I like you to be sincere about it.

My career is at stage.

I insure you it will happen.

I can’t endure it any more.

Prepare yourself for work.

Repair easier on the machine.

desire, require, conspire, devour, observe, disturb

I’m not prepared yet.

We’re required a down payment.

I’m disturbed by his action.

②Additional drills

appear, steer, impair, blare, affair, allure, secure, conspire, admire, shower

 

3. Assorted other categories of “olve”, ect”, and “ify”.

Olve和ect重读最后一个音节,ify重读第二个音节。

①Repeat after Dr. David

dissolve, resolve, involve

expect, respect, inspect, collect

I expect it.

I respect that man.

modify, amplify, codify, solidify, exemplify

②Additional drills

connect, infect, select

justify, horrify, sanctify



第24课

January 4, 2012 | Filed Under English | 1 Comment 

3-5 Intonation & Syllable Stress

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clqrtoch

 

Dr. David: In course 1 you learned to do the basic jump up/step down intonation pattern. Now let’s explore a little refinement of that pattern. Instead of just jumping on an early, important word, let’s jump on the stressed syllable of that word.

在第一章我们学习了如何提高音调,如今把这种技巧运用于需要重读的音节。本节将依次讲动词,形容词,名词的重读。

I’m really glad to see you.

重读[riə]这个音节。

I’m particularly glad to see you.

重读[ti]这个音节。

 

1. Stressed syllables of verbs

_____

 

A. First syllable stressed

重读第一个音节的单音节或多音节动词

Begin intonation by jumping on that syllable and then immediately (within the same word) begin the downward steps.

所谓重读,即提高对应音节的音调,然后接下来没有重读的音节快速把音调降下来。跟读录音,细细体会。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I’ll do it tomorrow morning.

I’ll try it tomorrow morning.

I’ll find it tomorrow morning.

I’ll grab it tomorrow morning.

I’ll publish it tomorrow morning.

I’ll cancel it tomorrow morning.

I’ll translate it tomorrow morning.

I’ll concentrate on that tomorrow morning.

I’ll dedicate it tomorrow morning.

I’ll separate them tomorrow morning.

I’ll analyze it tomorrow morning.

②Additional drills

(依照句式,替换练习,下同。)

rescue, rotate, finish, locate, borrow, listen to

 

B. Second syllable stressed

重读第二个音节的单音节或多音节动词

①Repeat after Dr. David

I’ll investigate it tomorrow morning.

I’ll establish it tomorrow morning.

除此之外,作者建议tomorrow在第二个音节重读,morning则在第一个音节重读。

I’ll determine that tomorrow morning.

I’ll remember it tomorrow morning.

I’ll continue it tomorrow morning.

I’ll return it tomorrow morning.

I’ll insure it tomorrow morning.

I’ll bow it tomorrow morning.

I’ll compete for that tomorrow morning.

I’ll destroy it tomorrow morning.

If you are not sure, jumping on the first syllable. You are much better of jumping on the wrong syllable than not jumping at all.

若不确定那里重读,作者说重读第一个音节,错了总比没有好,这叫我情何以堪。

②Additional drills

accomplish, examine, embellish, demolish, encourage

 

C. Different stress points

差异重读

Begin by jumping on either the primary or secondary stress point.

多音节的动词有时重读第一个或第二个音节都是可以的,下面每个句子作者都将读两次,体会之间的差别。

①Repeat after Dr. David

We’re having an investigation.

I’ll manufacture it tomorrow.

I’ll superimpose it tomorrow.

I’ll redevelop it tomorrow.

②Additional drills

要求:Do each one twice, jumping pitch on the two different stressed syllables.

Reassemble, reconsider, overindulge, reintroduce

 

2. Stressed syllables of adjectives

_____

 

A. First syllable stressed

重读第一个音节的形容词

①Repeat after Dr. David

A great thing happened today.

A swell thing happened today.

Some nice thing happened today.

Some fine thing happened today.

A charming thing happened today.

A silly thing happened today.

An interesting thing happened today.

A valuable thing happened today.

A wonderful thing happened today.

②Additional drills

sweet, tame, foul, good, bad

Sorry, horrible, special, stimulating, challenging

B. Second syllable stressed

重读第二个音节的形容词

An annoying thing happened today.

An expensive thing happened today.

An embarrassing thing happened today.

An inspiring thing happened today.

An remarkable thing happened today.

 

C. Final syllable stressed

重读末尾音节的形容词

A secure thing happened today.

A distinct thing happened today.

An absurd thing happened today.

(B和C都没有相应的录音,只能自己练。)

 

D. Optional syllables for intonation jumps

类似于多音节动词可以有不同重读的情况,形容词也是,请认真跟读录音,体会前后两次的不同。

①Repeat after Dr. David

An inconsiderate person came in today.

A superstitious people were in there.

An inappropriate thing happened today.

②Additional drills

satisfactory, dis/interested, overindulgent, inexperienced

 

3. The stressed syllables of nouns

Dr. David: The vast majority of nouns have first syllable stress. Almost all of the ones which do not stress the first syllable are nouns whose root words are other parts of speech (usually verbs).

大部分的名词都是重读第一个音节。一般说来,那些重读不在第一个音节的名词,是由其动词形式衍生而来的。

_____

 

A. One syllable or first syllable stress

单音节或第一个音节重读

①Repeat after Dr. David

My desk was the topic of discussion.

The ceiling was the topic of discussion.

The carpet was the topic of discussion.

Our telephone was the topic of discussion.

The highway system was the topic of conversation.

Pay attention to Compound Nouns. Jump the stressed syllable of the first word and continue stepping down through the second word of the compound noun.

重读冠词后的第一个音节。

The area rug was spread across the floor.

The adding machine was the topic of discussion.

The supply cabinet was over by the wall.

The station wagon can be a fine car.

②Additional drills

Table, workshop, calendar, strawberries, government, picture

Real estate, heart specialist, toy soldiers, speech teacher, speech writer, grave digger, appointment secretary

 

B. Second syllable stress

①Repeat after Dr. David

The director came into the room.

The computer broke down.

The assembly was called to order.

Our investment was really paid off.

②Additional drills

producer, executive, assistant, interpreter, ambassador

 

4. Final word stress

Occasionally a speaker wants to stress the last word in a phrase or sentence.

我们有时会重读最后一个单词,来表示我们想要强调的地方。

①Repeat after Dr. David

It was really interesting.

It’s very important.

He forgot to do the cleaning.

If that final word has only one syllable or if the stress falls on the last syllable, then you must jump up and slide down on the same stressed syllable.

我们说重读是提高一个音节的音调然后在下一个音节把它降下来。如果这个单词为单音节或重读音节已是最后一个,我们则应该在同一个音节做两件事。听听作者的错误示范,便会觉得若只升不降是很别扭的。

Don’t tell me he forgot.

I thought I told you to stop.

There was no way i can help.

I don’t want to have a debate.

He didn’t hear what i said.

We’re trying to conquer a disease.

②Additional drills

expect, belong, find, agree, receive, annoyed, explore, try

 



第23课

January 3, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-4 Other Colloquial Sloppiness

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/clqrtn1v

 

1. The Articles 冠词的四种发音规则

_____

 

A. Before a consonant, the word “the” is usually pronounced as the voiced “the” sound followed immediately by the beginning of the next word. There will be almost no vowel sound in the word “the”.

在辅音前,the中的[ə]不发音,即由辅音[ð]连下一个单词。

①Repeat after Dr. David

the tree, the house, the camel, the dog, the garage,

the hill, the jungle, the lamp

②Additional drills

the wall, the picture, the screen, the table, the ball, the street,

the gold, the Yellow chair, the dark sky, the cover

 

B. Before a vowel, the word “the” is pronounced with the [i:] vowel gliding into the beginning of the next word.

在元音前,冠词the读为[ði:]

①Repeat after Dr. David

the apple, the other, the old house, the English countryside,

the awful sauce, the illness, the other one

②Additional drills

The old man, the orange, the oboe, the island, the island, the owl, the ordinary people, the actual fact, the all-important dollar

 

C. Before a consonant, the word “a” is pronounced as the soft vowel [ə].

①Repeat after Dr. David

a book, a desk, a house, a picture, a fence, a garage

②Additional drills

a wall, a picture, a screen, a table, a ball, a street, a gold, a yellow chair, a dark sky, a cover

 

D. Before a vowel, the word “a” changes to the word “an” with the “n” gliding directly into the vowel that begins the next word.

[n]和接下来的元音连读。

①Repeat after Dr. David

an apple, an old mansion(n.宅邸), an English manor(n.庄园)

an awful thing, an ordinary day

②Additional drills

an old man, an orange, an oboe, an island, an owl, an ordinary person, an actual fact, an important idea

 

2. Other Short Words

_____

 

A. The word “to” is usually pronounced as a soft “t” with almost no vowel sound.

这种情况类似于3-4-1-A的the+辅音开头单词

①Repeat after Dr. David

to work, to the store, to the movies, to the office, to my mother’s house

②Additional drills

I have to be there soon.

He came to see his sister.

I have to go to the store this evening.

A*. But when the word “to” comes immediately after a word that ends in a vowel sound, it Americanizes into a soft “d”.

to的前面是以元音为尾音的单词,把[t]轻轻发成[d]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I must go to work.

Please go to the store.

Can we go to the movies?

I don’t want to go to the office.

A.** “Want To” be generated in to “Wanna”.

在口语中wanna的确更常见,有好多歌词也是用它。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Do you want to work?

Do you want to have some fun?

Do you want to go to the store?(这句话结合了A和A**中的要点,请注意体会。)

A.*** For “To You, To Him, To Her”, Americans will mess up one or the other.

类似于A,省略了元音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

I can’t give it to you.

I talked to him yesterday.

I have to bring it to her house.

②Additional drills

I already gave it to him.

I walked over to her.

So to speak, away to school, play to win, agree to speak

 

B. “for” and “from” are often pronounced [fə:] and [frm], unless they are at the end of a phrase.

若for,form不在句子的末尾,而是在句子的中间,for中[ɔ:]要发成[ə:],而from则去掉元音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

What’s that for?

I didn’t know what it’s for.

It’s for you.

It’s for him’

It’s for the church picnic.

It’s for school.

It’s something I need for my job.

②Additional drills

I’ll need it for three days.

It’s for you from all of us.

The letter from the president thanked him for doing good work.

Come down from there and go shopping for supper.

For heaven’s sake, will you please get away from him?

 

C. Most of the time in colloquial American English, “at” hardly gets pronounced at all.

The vowel is little more than a grunt, and the “t” is not really exploded.

at的尾音[t]不发音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

at school, at home, at the picnic, at the movies, at night, at camp

I brought it from Mary.

I got it from the store.

He’s home from overseas.

I got back from dad’s office.

②Additional drills

It’s different at school these days.

Back at the ranch, the family members were all at the table.

That’s a problem at all levels of government.

Be here at ten o’clock sharp!

He always seems to be at odds with the whole world.

 

D. Unless there’s a special reason to stress them, “and” and “or” usually degenerate into [n] and [ə] again, listen to the tape for the specific demonstrations.

若非特殊强调两者并列或两者选其一,and读成[n],or读成[ə]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

This and that, Mary and Paul, Spanish and French

Spanish and French, French or Spanish

Don’t study French and Spanish, study French or Spanish.

Go to school or to the beach.

②Additional drills

Sam and i went to the baseball game.

There are good and bad reasons for everything.

Bill or Fred will get it for Barbara and me.

You can have ham and eggs with pancakes or toast.

Tell mother or father that you and frank will be late.

 

E. “are” often degenerates into a simple sound, especially when the word is part of a question.

在口语中are一般读成短元音[ə],当它在句子中间更是如此。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Where are you going?

Who are they?

What are they doing?

Where are we having the party?

Who are they?

②Additional drills

What are the chances that there are enough chairs here?

When are we going to see you again?

Where are the family members going to meet?

 

F. “your” and “you’re” are usually pronounced [jə] in every day’s colloquial speech.

①Repeat after Dr. David

Lend me your book.

Give me your dentist’s phone number.

Who is your teacher this year?

You’re coming home tonight.

Tell me when you’re ready.

You’re going to the party, aren’t you?

当然,读成[a:nt, ja]或是[a:n, tju:]都是可以的。前者就好比看美剧时常看到的see ja,有点古英文的味道,后者则使我想起小时候老师教的I’m fine. Thank you, and you? 中的连读。

②Additional drills

You’re always saying that your kids are causing trouble.

Your waiter will be here when you’re ready to order.

Your every dream comes true when you wish upon your star.

 



第22课

January 2, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-3 Those Crazy Consonant Clusters

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/aq7dy7cs

 

Dr. David: Speakers from many languages fail to pronounce all stages consonant clusters(辅音连缀)–combinations of two or more consonant clusters, at the ends of words. This section is important for everyone. Pay particular attention if your first language is Spanish, or any of the East Asian languages.

 

1. Clusters with “S” And “T”

_____

 

A. “ST” clusters do add a soft, exploding “t” sound.

St的尾音是一个轻轻的,爆破的[t]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

east, dentist, test, fast, boost, cost

②Additional drills

blessed, crossed, beast, cast, roast, most, lost, post, bust

(在3-2-1-B里曾讲过:以p,k,s,sh结尾的单词加ed后,ed发[t]。)

 

B. “TS” clusters are pronounced as one affricate sound.

Affricate Sound: It is produced by first blocking the air stream and then by letting the air squeeze out the narrow channel formed by the two articulators.

塞擦音:口腔中构成阻碍的两个部分先完全闭塞,再压迫气流把闭塞部分冲开一条窄缝,气流从窄缝中挤出,摩擦成声。

Make it one sound not two.

连起来发成一个音,几乎听不到[t]的音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

sits, heats, bets, hats, suits, puts, pots

②Additional drills

get, lets, gates, bats, aristocrats, boats, boots

 

C. “STS” clusters begin with a simple “S” and the add the “TS” affricate

把前两个连在一起,发起来好像一个[s]出来后,停顿很短的一小会(此时是[t]的口型,几乎听不到的音),又是一个[s]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

dentists, tests, fasts, boosts, feasts, dusts, costs

②Additional drills

beasts, casts, roasts, posts, busts, costs, molests

 

2. Clusters with “S” and “K”

_____

 

A. “S” clusters add a softly exploding “K” to the simple “S”.

①Repeat after Dr. David

Ask. Task, desk, musk, tusk

②Additional drills

brisk, risk, bisque, bask, mosque

 

B. The “KS” cluster is also pronounced as one affricative sound.

①Repeat after Dr. David

breaks, sex, socks, backs, corks, box, blocks

②Additional drills

takes, rakes, mocks, peaks, beaks

pokes, dukes, trucks, lox

 

C. The “SKS” cluster begins with a simple “S” and then adds the “KS” affricate

中间的[k]发得短促就可以了,听作者朗读,我总觉得此时的[k]比之前同位置的[t]要明显。

①Repeat after Dr. David

asks, tasks, desks, musks, tusks

②Additional drills

risks, bisques, basks, mosques(n. pl.清真寺)

 

3. Sentences combined with different clusters.

①Repeat after Dr. David

I must ask you to travel east and west in the states.

He sits at the desk.

She puts paper on the desks.

He eats lox after loading the trucks.

Two apples cost a nickel, but one costs three cents.

The dentist boasts about how much gold costs.

She lifts her gifts out of the box.

②Additional drills

He gets into locked gates at a reasonable cost.

Don’t risk the brisk water of cold lakes.

Making masks takes great cost and many efforts.

Scientists’ time is costlier in the west than in the east.

 

4. Additional voiceless clusters 以清辅音为尾音的辅音连缀

①Repeat after Dr. David

[ps]-Dips, hips, apes, troupes, groups

[ft]-Lift, aft, soft, laughed, goofed, loafed

[fts]-Lifts, sifts, gifts, drafts

Two sounds not three.

中间的辅音是几乎不发的,有个短暂的嘴型即可。

[fθ]-Fifth, sixth

[fθs]-Fifths, sixths

He fails his tests because he loafs in class.

The sixth line of troupes will climb the Alps.

He lifts weights to get rid of soft hips.

She studies arts and crafts during fifth period.

②Additional drills

Grapes were left over from the gift packages.

Parachute drops get easier after the seventh try.

The sixth grader laughed after the fifth grader goofed.

Doctors can graft soft skin onto your hips.

 

5. Clusters which contain at least one Voiced consonant. 浊辅音后的尾音要发出来。

①Repeat after Dr. David

grant, dent, can’t, blunt, sent

hand, sand, end, send, blend

camp, damp, hemp

help, kelp, alps, scalps

rents, dents, grants, bunts

hand, sands, ends, blends

I sent him to wash his hands.

It rains hard in camp.

The sands at the ends of the beach were covered with kelp.

My scalp itches and burns from the suds.

②Additional drills

Grant me the help I need to end the problems.

Lend me your hands to get the dents out of the car.

The boxing champ can’t stand the damp smell of the gym.

Pretend that camp has ended and you got your research grant.

 



第21课

January 1, 2012 | Filed Under English | Leave a Comment 

3-2 Is It S Or Z? Is It T Or D?

整理by Graham

Mp3 Link: http://u.115.com/file/e6kovvvx

 

1. Adding “ed” for past tense verbs

_____

 

A. If the verb ends in “d” or “t” the past tense will add the full syllable [ed]. But most Americans will pronounce it as if it were [id].

过去式加ed,e发[i]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

Now I hand to him.

Yesterday I handed to him.

I can grant the wish.

Yesterday I granted the wish.

hand/handed

head/headed

grade/graded

parade/paraded

请注意下面动词的过去式,最后一个音节是[tid],但在3-1我们知道,[t]夹在两元音之间应该轻轻发成[d],即seated的美音读法应该是[‘si:did]。

seat/seated

greet/greeted

treat/treated

They headed north.

He wore a knitted sweater.

They adopted a child.

②Additional drills

Seeded, beaded, aided, raided, traded, wooded, carded, regarded, pitted,

Patted, grated, kindhearted, booted, suited, started

 

B. If a regular verb ends in “p”, “k”, “s”, or “sh”, the past tense will add a softly exploding “t” sound.

以p,k,s,sh结尾的单词加ed后,ed发[t]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

sip/sipped

map/mapped

cracked, kissed, missed, fished, crashed

②Additional drills

Caped, seeped, chipped, ripped, hoped, hopped, backed, baked, poked,

Soaked, missed, harassed, wished, cashed

B*. But if any of these words (which now end in a “t” sound) come right before words beginning with vowel sound, that imaginary “t” is now medial. Now that it’s between vowels again, it will Americanize to a soft “d”.

但当四种动词的过去式再接以元音开头的单词时,即出现双元音夹一辅音的情况,则要发回其对应清辅音[d]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

[t]

[d]

I sipped the drink.

I sipped it.

He cracked the glass.

He cracked it.

I kissed the book.

I kissed it.

I cashed the check.

I cashed in the bonds.

②Additional drills

Chipped open, ripped off, hoped a lot, backed away, apple, missed everybody,

Packed, hopped along, poked in the ribs

 

C. If a regular verb ends in any sounds other than “t”, “d”, “p”, “k”, “s” or “sh”, the past tense will add a “d” and no extra syllable in the word.

除去A和B提到六种情况,其他动词的过去式ed均用[d]发音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

soloed-I soloed in the plane.

played-I played the part of Hamlet.

skied-I skied down the hill.

seemed-She seemed to be doing well.

canned-we canned the vegetable.

stirred-They stirred the nesger.

resolved-John resolved the problem yesterday.

②Additional drills

Bribed, died, denied, judged, handled, rammed, planned, discovered, favored,

Saved, played, enjoyed, annoyed

 

2. Adding “s” to nouns or verbs

_____

 

A. The added “s” or “es” is pronounced as an unvoiced “s” only when the root word ends in “p”, “t”, “k”, or “f”.

以p,t,k,f结尾的单词加复数,发[s]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

hip/hips, sip/sips, cap/caps, stop/stops

sits/sits, bet/bets, Pocket/pockets

sack/sacks, break/breaks, chuck/chuck’s

cliff/cliffs, brief/briefs, safe/safes

Some words ending in “f” actually change their spelling to “v” In the plural. You then follow the rule for “v” instead of “f”.

部分以f结尾的单词变复数需改f为v再加es,此时发[vs]d的音。

Leaf/leaves, half/halves

②Additional drills

dopes, hops, mops, hopes

seats, greets, goats

racks, racks, shakes, stocks, socks

giraffes, bluffs

 

B. The added “s”or “es” is pronounced as the full syllable “[ez]” or “[iz]” when root word ends in any of the following sounds: “s”, “z”, “sh”, “gh”, “ch” or “dg”.

以s和z,sh和zh,gh,ch和dg结尾的单词加复数,发[iz]。

①Repeat after Dr. David

glass/glasses, two busses, He misses me.

buzzes, raises, praises, roses,

bushes, brushes, pushes,

churches, crutches, bunches,

judge’s, badges, rages

②Additional drills

kisses, hisses, pieces, releases, places, reces, graces, freezes, breezes,

blazes, seizes, poses, pushes, cashes, lurches. Lunches, crutches, garages,

lodges, catches

 

C. The added “s” or “es” is pronounced as the voiced “z” (without an extra vowel and without forming an extra syllable), when the root ends in any vowel sound or in any consonants except the ones in the last two categories.

以元音或其他辅音(不包括t,d,p,k,s,z,sh,ch,gh,dg)结尾的单词加复数,发[s]音。

①Repeat after Dr. David

pianos, days, skies, shoes, cows, cries

sings, signs, hems

bribes, heads, bags, saves

②Additional drills

grows, rows, plays, sees, agrees, blows, photos, bows, wines, hands, begs,

graves, king’s, graves, waves, borrows, men’s



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